Bibliographie Bibliography - CIEP

30 mai 2014 - ceux qui contribuent à améliorer l'enseignement de la langue d'apprentissage ? ... enjeux », Les Dossiers des sciences de l'éducation, 2011, n° 25, p. 89-106. ... véritables politiques d'accountability ne sont pas appliquées.
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Sommaire Table of contents Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 2 Études générales ..................................................................................................................................... 3 Context Atelier 1. Récits et discours sur l’éducation............................................................................................. 9 Workshop 1. Discourse and narratives on education Atelier 2. Savoirs, curricula et pédagogies ............................................................................................ 21 Workshop 2. Knowledge, curricula and pedagogy Atelier 3. Enjeux et modalités du financement de l’éducation en Asie .................................................. 37 Workshop 3. Issues and conditions associated with the funding of education in Asia Atelier 4. Évolution des organisations scolaires face aux mutations socioéconomiques...................... 44 Workshop 4. Changes in school education systems as a result of socioeconomic transformations Atelier 5. École et sociétés, la confiance en jeu .................................................................................... 60 Workshop 5. School and society : A matter of trust Atelier 6. Existence et influence de modèles asiatiques ....................................................................... 74 Workshop 6. The existence and influence of Asian models Index auteurs ......................................................................................................................................... 86 Authors index Index zones géographiques .................................................................................................................. 86 Geographical index

Introduction Cette bibliographie a été réalisée dans le cadre du colloque international de la Revue internationale d’éducation de Sèvres « L’éducation en Asie en 2014 : quels enjeux mondiaux ? ». Elle a été conçue en appui aux communications présentées en conférences plénières ou en ateliers. Trois critères ont guidé le choix des références bibliographiques présentées : les thèmes abordés, les contextes géographiques couverts par le colloque, la date de publication (à partir de 2010), afin de rendre compte des réalités éducatives contemporaines en Asie. L’objectif est ici de donner à un public non spécialiste du continent asiatique un aperçu des questions et des débats en cours dans cette région, en matière d’éducation. Une première partie de cadrage général sur l’éducation en Asie propose deux types de références : d’une part, des rapports d’organisations internationales, et en particulier ceux de l’Unesco Bangkok, de l’OCDE et de la Banque mondiale ; d’autre part, des références d’auteurs issus de champs institutionnels et disciplinaires variés, qui étudient l’éducation en Asie à travers différents prismes : anthropologique, culturel, historique, économique ou politique. La deuxième partie est calquée sur l’organisation des ateliers du colloque. Les références y sont classées par titre d’atelier, en fonction des pays faisant l’objet d’une étude de cas, des intervenants ainsi que du thème traité dans l’atelier. Nous fournissons les résumés des éditeurs, afin de donner une idée plus précise des contenus, mais il a été parfois nécessaire de les abréger pour des raisons de longueur. Si cette bibliographie propose donc des notices rédigées en anglais et en français, la majorité des références sélectionnées sont anglo-saxonnes. Un index des auteurs et un index géographique sont fournis in fine. Bibliographie arrêtée le 30 mai 2014 Bernadette Plumelle

Introduction This bibliography was compiled as part of the international conference “Education in Asia in 2014: What Global Issues? , organised by the Revue internationale d’éducation de Sèvres. It is designed to complement papers presented in plenary sessions and workshops. The choice of bibliographic references has been guided by three criteria – issues explored, geographical contexts examined at the conference, and publication date (2010 onwards) – in order to take account of Asia’s contemporary educational realities. The aim here is to give a non-specialist readership an insight into the educational issues and debates currently animating the Asian continent. The first section provides a general framework and contains two types of bibliographic reference: on one hand, reports published by international organisations, in particular UNESCO Bangkok, the OECD and the World Bank; on the other, works by authors hailing from various institutional and disciplinary fields, who study education in Asia from anthropological, cultural, historical, economic or political perspectives. The second section mirrors the structure of the conference workshops. The references are categorised by workshop title, according to the countries examined in case studies, speakers, and the issue discussed in the workshop. We have also provided the publisher’s abstract for each title, in order to give readers a more detailed idea of its content. Space constraints have meant that, in some cases, abstracts have been abridged. While bibliographic details are given in both English and French, most of the chosen references are from English-speaking countries. Indexes of authors and places names are also provided. th

Bibliography dated May 30 , 2014 Bernadette Plumelle

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Études générales Context Inde, Indonésie, Malaisie BLOEM Simone, PISA in low and middle income countries, OECD Education Working Papers, OCDE/Paris, 2013, n° 93, 40 p. Retrieved from: http://goo.gl/EvyG7U This paper provides a detailed description of partner countries’ participation across PISA rounds and the challenges faced by low- and middle-income partner countries in effectively implementing and deriving policy value from PISA. Many partner countries lag considerably behind OECD countries on various dimensions of social and economic development. After grouping countries based on income (GNI per capita), this paper shows that the cognitive performance of students in countries participating in PISA varies considerably not only between different country income groups but also within them. Analysis of PISA performance in relation to national wealth provides strong arguments for grouping countries according to their social and economic development when reflecting on challenges of participation and effective use of PISA. […] BOUVIER Alain, La gouvernance des systèmes éducatifs, Presses universitaires de France, 2012, 384 p. Les systèmes éducatifs contemporains sont sous l’influence des évolutions internationales, des réformes politiques et administratives des pays, des enquêtes et palmarès, des logiques de résultats et de performances, des pressions sociales, économiques et culturelles, des groupes organisés. Ils doivent tenir compte des éclairages de la recherche, des progrès des sciences du management, du nombre croissant de parties prenantes, des contraintes de l’aménagement du territoire, de l’importance prise par les « écoles parallèles », les systèmes informels et l’usage généralisé des nouvelles technologies… Ainsi se pose à chaque système éducatif la question de sa gouvernance, des régulations et de l’utilisation d’outils plus ou moins nouveaux du management public. Partant de la prégnance de l’histoire des territoires et de l’importance croissante des réseaux, cet ouvrage montre, à partir d’exemples concrets, les sources de la gouvernance. […] BRAY Mark, ADAMSON Bob, MASON Mark (dir.), Recherche comparative en éducation : approches et méthodes, Perspectives en éducation et formation, De Boeck Université/Bruxelles, 2010, 406 p. L'éducation comparée est un domaine par nature interdisciplinaire. Ce livre, structuré en trois parties, ouvre de nouvelles perspectives par rapport aux traditions dans ce domaine. Dans la première partie, les acteurs et objectifs de l'éducation comparée sont définis ainsi que les approches quantitatives et qualitatives et la place de l'expérience dans la recherche en éducation comparée. Viennent ensuite des analyses spécifiques en éducation comparée qui se concentrent sur un éventail d'éléments de comparaison : les lieux, les systèmes, les époques, les cultures, les valeurs, les acquis scolaires, les politiques, les programmes d'études, les organisations éducatives, les manières d'apprendre et les innovations pédagogiques. BRAY Mark, ADAMSON Bob, MASON Mark (eds.), Comparative education research: approaches and methods, CECR studies in comparative education, Comparative education research centre/The University of Hong Kong , Springer/Hong Kong, 2014, 453 p. Approaches and methods in comparative education research are of obvious importance, but do not always receive adequate attention. This book contributes new insights within the longstanding traditions of the field. A particular feature is the focus on different units of analysis. Individual chapters compare places, systems, times, cultures, values, policies, curricula and other units. These chapters are contextualised within broader analytical frameworks which identify the purposes and strengths of the field. The book includes a focus on intra-national as well as cross-national comparisons, and highlights the value of approaching themes from different angles. The book will be of great value not only to producers of comparative education research but also to consumers who wish to understand more thoroughly the parameters and value of the field. BROCK Colin, PE SYMACO Lorraine (eds.), Education in South-East Asia, Oxford studies in comparative education, Symposium books/UK, vol. 21 n° 2, 2011, 348 p.

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This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region - the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education country experts and give the readers an overview of each country's education system, while also highlighting issues currently significant to each system. There are also thematic chapters on selected issues reckoned to be significant in the region such as: gender, education and development; higher education ; language policy; quality assurance; and sustainable development. […] CARROUE Laurent, COLLET Didier, La mondialisation contemporaine : rapports de force et enjeux, Breal/Paris, 2013, 350 p. CARROUE Laurent, COLLET Didier, Les grandes mutations du monde au XXe siècle, Breal/Paris, 2013, 464 p. DE KETELE Jean-Marie, « Les épreuves externes servent-elles l'action ? », Revue française de linguistique appliquée, juin 2013, vol. XVIII-1, p. 9-27. Disponible sur : http://www.cairn.info/resume.php?ID_ARTICLE=RFLA_181_0009 Les enquêtes internationales ont envahi, ces dernières années, l'espace politique, médiatique et pédagogique. Nul doute qu'elles ont eu des effets. Mais sont-ils tous positifs ? N'ont-elles pas des effets pervers non toujours perçus ? Et surtout quel impact ont-elles sur l'action, c'est-à-dire sur tous ceux qui contribuent à améliorer l'enseignement de la langue d'apprentissage ? Pour répondre à ces questions, nous tentons d'analyser les effets des épreuves internationales à partir de neuf questions à double versant (positif et négatif). Puis nous examinons ce qui en est fait au niveau national dans son effort de comprendre les facteurs influençant les résultats obtenus et en quoi les évaluations nationales ont été influencées par ces analyses. De toutes ces analyses, nous tentons de dégager les conditions pour une mise en complémentarité des épreuves internationales et nationales. DE KETELE Jean-Marie, « Evaluation et enseignement : pour quels objectifs ? par quels moyens ? : dossier », Revue française de linguistique appliquée, juin 2013, vol. XVIII-1, p. 3-116. Disponible sur : http://www.cairn.info/revue-francaise-de-linguistique-appliquee-2013-1.htm Trois grands mouvements actuels ont inspiré l'organisation de ce numéro consacré à l'évaluation. Le premier concerne la place actuelle tenue par les enquêtes internationales comme PIRLS ou PISA ; les deux suivants concernent l'approche par compétences (APC) et le socioconstructivisme puis la faiblesse de l'évaluation formative face aux évaluations sommatives. Les premiers articles balaient l'ensemble des problématiques : est-ce que les épreuves internationales et nationales servent véritablement l'action ? Que doit-on entendre par compétences transversales et comment sont-elles évaluées ? DE KETELE Jean-Marie, « L'évaluation et le curriculum : les fondements conceptuels, les débats, les enjeux », Les Dossiers des sciences de l'éducation, 2011, n° 25, p. 89-106. DEVILLAR Robert A., JIANG Binbin, CUMMINS Ji (eds.)., Transforming education: global perspectives experiences and implications, Educational psychology critical pedagogy perspectives, Peter Lang, 2013, 290 p. This research-based volume presents a substantive, panoramic view of ways in which Australia and countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North and South America engage in educational programs and practices to transform the learning processes and outcomes of their students. It reveals and analyzes national and global trajectories in key areas of educational development, and enhances readers' understanding of the nature and complexity of educational transformation in a global context. The book's comprehensive analysis of factors associated with transforming education within globally representative geographical, cultural, and political contexts contributes to critical scholarship; its discussion of individual country findings and cross-country patterns has significant implications for educational practitioners and leaders. […]

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DUPRIEZ Vincent, MONS Nathalie (coord.), « Les politiques d'accountability : du changement institutionnel aux transformations locales : dossier », Éducation comparée, vol. 5, 2011, p. 7-154. Disponible sur : http://www.i6doc.com Les politiques d'accountability (reddition de comptes) ont pour objectif de responsabiliser les autorités des établissements en leur communiquant des indicateurs liés aux résultats des élèves. Cette conception de gouvernance de systèmes éducatifs est mis en œuvre aux États-Unis et dans des pays anglo-saxons ; elle est également présente sous des formes diverses dans des régions où de véritables politiques d'accountability ne sont pas appliquées. L'objectif de ce dossier est de rendre compte de la diversité des dispositifs de reddition de comptes et de responsabilisation des écoles et des personnels de l'enseignement en France, au Canada, aux États-Unis, dans les pays scandinaves et en Angleterre et d'analyser la perception et la réception de ceux-ci par différents types d'acteurs. KHOA Le Huu, Liens méthodologiques et parenté épistémologique entre les sciences sociales, Presses universitaires du Septentrion/Villeneuve d'Ascq, 2000, 155 p. L'analyse de la parenté épistémologique proposée dans cet ouvrage tente de clarifier le voisinage des approches historiques, contextuelles, comparatives, typologiques des sciences sociales qui se démarquent progressivement des modèles explicatifs des sciences logiques, mathématiques, et expérimentales. De même, l'explication des liens méthodologiques développée dans ce même ouvrage s'attache à cerner la proximité des méthodes d'analyse et des outils techniques entre les sciences sociales qui gardent également leur spécificité d'interprétation face aux sciences linguistique, démographique et économique. […] LÊ Thành Khôi, Éducation et civilisations : sociétés d'hier, Nathan/Paris,1995, 704 p. L’ouvrage retrace l'histoire des relations entre l'éducation et la société dans les différentes civilisations du passé. Il aborde successivement l'histoire de l'éducation : dans les sociétés communautaires d'Afrique ; au sein des cultures hindoue et bouddhique d'Asie ; dans la société mandarinale et féodale de Chine et du Japon ; en Europe, de la Grèce antique à la chrétienté médiévale ; dans le monde islamique, à la fois un et divers. Ce panorama constitue un apport essentiel aux études historiques en matière d'éducation comparée. LÊ Thành Khôi, Éducation et civilisations : genèse du monde contemporain, UNESCO, Editions Bruno Leprince/Paris, 2001, 734 p. L'auteur, spécialiste d'éducation comparée, propose dans cet ouvrage une analyse mondiale de l'éducation dans ses dimensions intellectuelle, morale, affective, esthétique et physique. Dans une première partie, il analyse le rôle de l'éducation dans la genèse des sociétés industrielles d'Europe, d'Amérique du Nord, du Japon, de l'Australie et de la Nouvelle-Zélande. La deuxième partie porte sur les sociétés en transition d'aujourd'hui, sociétés d'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes, de l'Afrique et de l'Asie. MONS Nathalie, PONS Xavier, « Pourquoi n'y a-t-il pas eu de "choc PISA" en France ? Sociologie de la réception d'une enquête internationale (2001-2008) », Revue française de pédagogie, n° 182, mars 2013, p. 9-17. Cet article analyse la réception de l’enquête PISA dans le débat public national en France entre 2001 et 2008. Croisant la sociologie de la traduction et la notion de configuration, il met en évidence que les connaissances énoncées dans le débat public au nom de PISA sont les produits plus ou moins durables des configurations d’action publique à l’oeuvre au moment de leur publication. La première partie, fondée sur une enquête qualitative conduite par les auteurs dans le cadre du projet européen Knowlege and Policy(Know&Pol), analyse deux configurations et leur pouvoir de structuration du débat public. La seconde mobilise les études de cas effectuées dans d’autres pays européens dans le cadre de ce projet pour interroger les éventuelles spécificités du débat public français sur PISA. MONS Nathalie, « France : la concertation un nouvel art de gouverner ? », Revue internationale d'éducation de Sèvres ?, n° 61, décembre 2012, n° 61, p. 14-17. RAPPLEYE Jeremy, Educational policy transfer in an era of globalization theory-historycomparison, Comparative studies series, Peter Lang/Frankfurt am Main, 2012, 502 p. As education becomes increasingly global, the processes and politics of transfer have become a

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central focus of research. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of contemporary theoretical and analytical work aimed at exploring international educational reform and reveals the myriad ways that globalization is now fundamentally altering our dominant conceptions. It illustrates how transfer has emerged to play a central part in policy formation processes worldwide, but also reveals critical differences between developed countries and aid-dependent developing states. […]. Chine, Japon TOBIN Joseph, HSUEH Yeh, KARASAWA Mayumi, Preschool in Three Cultures Revisited: China, Japan, and the United States, University of Chicago Press, 2011 280 p. Published twenty years ago, the original Preschool in Three Cultures was a landmark in the study of education: a profoundly enlightening exploration of the different ways preschoolers are taught in China, Japan, and the United States. Here, lead author Joseph Tobin—along with new collaborators Yeh Hsueh and Mayumi Karasawa—revisits his original research to discover how two decades of globalization and sweeping social transformation have affected the way these three cultures educate and care for their youngest pupils. Putting their subjects’ responses into historical perspective, Tobin, Hsueh, and Karasawa analyze the pressures put on schools to evolve and to stay the same, discuss how the teachers adapt to these demands, and examine the patterns and processes of continuity and change in each country. Chine, Pakistan, Singapour YATES Lyn, GRUMET Madeleine (eds.), World yearbook of education 2011: curriculum in today's world: configuring knowledge identities work and politics, Routledge/Londres, 2014, 254 p. How do curriculum, conceptions of knowledge and the schooling experiences of young people engage the great issues of this tumultuous time? Curriculum is always influenced by the events that shape our world, but when testing and bench-marking preoccupy us, we can forget the world that is both the foundation and the object of curriculum. This edited volume brings together international contributors to analyze and reflect on the way the events of the last decade have influenced the curriculum in their countries. As they address nationalism in the face of economic globalisation, the international financial crisis, immigration and the culture of diaspora, they ask how national loyalties are balanced with international relationships and interests. […]

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Rapports internationaux International reports Chine, Japon, Laos, Indonésie, Malaisie, Vietnam Asian Development Bank , UNICEF : Fonds des Nations unies pour l'enfance, Providers and PublicPrivate Partnerships in Education for the Poor, Asian Development Bank/Manila, UNICEF, 2011, 56 p. Retrieved from: http://www.unicef.org/eapro/Final_NSP_lowres.pdf This report highlight issues, opportunities and challenges related to non-state providers and their partnerships with the State in fulfilling the rights to education for all in East Asia and the Pacific. While recognizing the State as being ultimately accountable for the equitable provision of education services, the paper looks at the challenges to traditional means of schooling, funded and provided solely by the State. It discusses the potential shifts in the role of the State vis-à-vis that of non-state providers for consideration, by exploring a range of PPP models in education, benefits and risks commonly associated with them, and essential factors for establishing successful partnerships. Considerations for PPPs that contribute to improved opportunities to education for the poor are emphasized. Corée du Sud, Hong-Kong BORGONOVI Francesca , MONTT Guillermo, Parental involvement in selected PISA countries and economies, OCDE/Paris, 2012, n° 73, 165 p. Retrieved from: http://goo.gl/rzQaNr Studies have highlighted the beneficial effects of parental involvement in children’s educational lives. Few studies, however, analyse parental involvement in a cross-national perspective and few evaluate a wide array of forms of involvement. In 2009, 14 countries and economies implemented the parental questionnaire option in the PISA 2009 cycle. This working paper evaluates the levels of parental involvement across countries and sub-groups within countries, as well as the relationship of involvement with both cognitive (reading performance) and non-cognitive outcomes (enjoyment of reading and awareness of effective summarising strategies). Findings suggest that some forms of parental involvement are more strongly related to cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes than others. These include reading to children when they are young, engaging in discussions that promote critical thinking and setting a good example. Findings also show that levels of parental involvement vary across countries and economies. […] Chine, Hong-Kong, Japon , Singapour OCDE : Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, Lessons from PISA for the United States : strong performers and successful reformers in education, OCDE/Paris, 2011, 256 p. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/pisa/46623978.pdf The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) provides the world’s most extensive and rigorous set of international surveys assessing the knowledge and skills of secondary school students. This volume combines an analysis of PISA with a description of the policies and practices of those education systems that are close to the top or advancing rapidly, in order to offer insights for policy from their reform trajectories. Japon , Hong-Kong, Singapour OCDE : Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, Lessons from Pisa for Japan: strong performers and successful reformers in education, OCDE/Paris, 2012, 207 p. Retrieved from : http://www.oecd.org/edu/school/programmeforinternationalstudentassessmentpisa/49802616.pdf For decades Japan has remained at or near the top of international assessments of student learning; and in the past decade, students in Japan have become more engaged in learning. However, the government aspires to improve learning outcomes even further. This book focuses on how Japan is reforming its education system not only to produce better learning outcomes, but to equip students with the skills they need to navigate through the unpredictable labour market of the future and to participate in society as active citizens.

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UNESCO. Bangkok office, KENNEDY Kerry J., Culture and learning: reconstructing research on learning for students in Asia and the Pacific, UNESCO/Bangkok, 2013, 25 p. Retrieved from : http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002251/225171E.pdf This Discussion Document argues that learning needs to be viewed in the cultural contexts that construct it. Learning is not some objectified process that works the same way for all learners. Social and cultural contexts provide inputs to learning and these factors need to be acknowledged. Connectionism may provide one metaphor for considering the importance of “activating the mind” although it may not provide a complete theoretical framework to view learning. Understanding learning better will help to address learning disparities in the region and this needs to be made a priority. […] UNESCO : Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation la science et la culture, ROSE Pauline dir., Rapport mondial de suivi sur l'EPT 2013/4 : enseigner et apprendre : atteindre la qualité pour tous, UNESCO/Paris, 2014, 443 p. Disponible sur : http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002261/226157f.pdf Ce rapport annuel fait le bilan des progrès accomplis par les pays vers la réalisation des objectifs mondiaux de l’éducation adoptés en l’an 2000. Malgré les avancées de ces dix dernières années, aucun des objectifs de l’Éducation pour tous (EPT) ne sera atteint à l’échelle mondiale d’ici à 2015. 57 millions d’enfants BRAYne sont toujours pas scolarisés et, qu’ils aient été scolarisés ou non, un tiers des enfants en âge de fréquenter l’enseignement primaire ne possède pas les compétences de base. Le rapport montre la nécessité de valoriser le potentiel des enseignants afin d’améliorer la qualité de l’apprentissage et considère nécessaire le recrutement d’1,6 million d’enseignants supplémentaires. Chine , Corée du Sud, Hong-Kong, Indonésie, Japon , Laos , Malaisie , Singapour, Vietnam UNESCO. Asia and Pacific regional bureau for education, Banque mondiale, PATRINOS Harry Antony (ed.), Strengthening education quality in East Asia : SABER System assessment and benchmarking for education results, UNESCO/Bangkok, Banque mondiale/Washington, 2012, 162 p. Retrieved from : http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/SABER_East_Asia_Report_Dec2011.pdf This study argues that in order to improve education quality, it is crucial to monitor each policy domain that makes up the whole. To help government's identify best practice policies, the World Bank created a framework to benchmark education system policies across the world. The framework is called system assessment and Benchmarking for Education Results (SABER). This study presents the first, pilot application of SABER in 14 economies in East Asia-a region where improving the quality of education remains the key challenge. It outlines the SABER framework for eight education policy domains; affording cross-country comparisons, in combination with evidence on which program work. […] UNESCO. Asia and Pacific regional bureau for education, Financing of secondary education in the Asia-Pacific region: synthesis paper, Education Policy Research Series, UNESCO/Bangkok, 2013, 55 p. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002255/225507e.pdf This Discussion Document provides a regional synthesis of country surveys, case studies and secondary data analysis on the financing of secondary education launched by UNESCO Bangkok. The synthesis provides an overview of the status of secondary education in the Asia-Pacific region, including national policies and experiences related to education financing, along with reflections and suggestions for building sustainable financing policies and strategies. […]

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Atelier 1. Récits et discours sur l’éducation Workshop 1. Discourse and narratives on education Vietnam ATTFIELD Ian, VU Binh Thanh, « A rising tide of primary school standards—The role of data systems in improving equitable access for all to quality education in Vietnam », International Journal of o Educational Development, vol. 33 n 1, janvier 2013, p. 74-87. The approach taken over the past decade to introduce minimum primary school standards in Vietnam is reviewed, with annual school audits that measured both input (quality) and output indicators. It describes a successful, context specific approach in which flexible data systems were used to support the evolution and adoption of a new set of standards. A rich multiyear data set has enabled impact analysis, equitable investment planning and test hypotheses on the variables within the ‘black box’ of a classroom that influence learning. Institutional challenges presented in mainstreaming and evolving standards are contrasted with international best practice on raising standards. Hong-Kong, Taïwan BILLIOUD Sébastien, « Le rôle de l'éducation dans le projet salvateur du Yiguandao », Extrêmeo Orient Extrême-Occident, vol. 33 n 1, janvier 2011, p. 211-234. Disponible sur : http://www.cairn.info/article.php?ID_ARTICLE=EXTRO_033_0211 Troisième religion de Taiwan alors qu’il reste interdit en Chine continentale, le Yiguandao (Voie de l’unité reliant toutes choses), souvent considéré comme un « nouveau mouvement religieux », se développe aujourd’hui rapidement dans toute l’Asie. À partir d’une étude ethnographique conduite à Hong-Kong, on s’attache ici à comprendre le rôle que joue l’éducation dans son expansion. On analyse notamment son entreprise de promotion dans la société de textes classiques majoritairement confucéens et l’importance attribuée à la formation des adeptes. Enfin, on montre que la valorisation de l’éducation/transformation (jiaohua) constitue aussi pour le Yiguandao un moyen de se légitimer vis-à-vis des autorités politiques, que ce soit à Taiwan ou, plus récemment, en Chine continentale. Corée du Sud BYUN Soo-yong, SCHOFER Evan, KIM Kyung-keun, « Revisiting the Role of Cultural Capital in East o Asian Educational Systems: The Case of South Korea », Sociology of Education, vol. 85 n 3, juillet 2012, p. 219-239. Using data from the 2000 Programme for International Student Assessment, the authors explored cultural capital in South Korea by investigating the relationships among family socioeconomic status (SES), cultural capital, and children’s academic achievement. South Korea was compared with Japan, France, and the United States to understand how institutional features of South Korean education shape the role of cultural capital in academic success. […] The authors highlighted several institutional features of South Korean education, including a standardized curriculum, extreme focus on test preparation, and extensive shadow education, which may combine to suppress the effect of children’s embodied cultural capital on academic achievement. Taïwan CHIU YiChing Jean, COWAN John, « Helping Eastern students to master Western critical thinking », o Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13 n 1, mars 2012, p. 103-111. It is possible that some of the problems that confront Eastern learners when they are asked to engage in critical thinking come from the misleading association of the title with criticising negatively and even with disagreeing. In some other educational situations, careful choice of first language titles for concepts so that they do not introduce difficulties for learners has proved fruitful in easing acquaintance with a new concept. Since the definitions of critical thinking emphasise the central role of reasoning in this process and make no explicit mention of disagreement or fault finding, there seems potential in a pedagogical approach to the development of the ability for critical thinking which focuses on identifying, considering and presenting reasons—and perhaps renaming the process, even if only temporarily, accordingly.

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CORNU Laurence (coord)., « Le plaisir et l'ennui à l'école », Revue internationale d'éducation de Sèvres, n° 57, septembre 2011, 176 p. Des enseignants, des philosophes, des écrivains, des psychanalystes et des sociologues d'une dizaine de pays sont interrogés sur ce qu'on attend de l'école en différents lieux du monde : ce qu'on en attend au jour le jour et "pour plus tard", dans la raison d'être de l'institution, et dans son expérience quotidienne. D'un pays à un autre, que disent les discours "officiels" du plaisir d'aller à l'école et d'y étudier ? Enquête, témoignages ou littérature : qu'en disent les élèves, les professeurs, les chefs d'établissement, les parents ? Concrètement, quelle est l'atmosphère, quelles sont les pratiques pédagogiques dans les classes, ou les établissements ? CORNU Laurence, « Relier les études à la vie », Revue internationale d'éducation de Sèvres, n° 57, septembre 2011, p. 39-50. Disponible sur : http://ries.revues.org/2060 Chine, Taïwan DUTOURNIER Guillaume, « Les “écoles familiales“ en Chine continentale et à Taiwan : triple regard sur un traditionalisme éducatif », Extrême-Orient Extrême-Occident, janvier 2011, n° 33, p.172-210. Disponible sur : http://www.cairn.info/revue-extreme-orient-extreme-occident-2011-1-page-172.htm Depuis les années 2000, à Taiwan comme en Chine populaire, une petite minorité de parents d’élèves soustraient plus ou moins légalement leurs enfants à l’obligation scolaire, soit pour se charger euxmêmes de leur entière éducation, soit pour les confier contre rémunération à des particuliers partisans de la même démarche. Pour des motifs tant identitaires qu’éducatifs, ces pédagogues autoproclamés se détournent de l’institution scolaire, tentant ainsi de renouer, par-delà les ruptures modernistes du XXe siècle, avec une éducation familiale associant le développement de l’enfant à la mémorisation des Classiques confucéens. Expression radicale du « mouvement pour la lecture des Classiques par les enfants », ce phénomène porte la marque de l’universitaire taiwanais Wang Caigui, qui promeut à travers cette forme d’éducation alternative un projet élitiste, mais privé pour l’heure d’une véritable validation institutionnelle. […] Chine FAIRBROTHER Gregory P., « Forging consensus for implementing youth socialization policy in Northwest China », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 31 no 2, mars 2011, p. 179-186. The goal of this article is to examine how the provincial education media in China play a role of forging consensus among local actors responsible for the implementation of new centrally-promulgated youth socialization policy. In doing so, it also explores the tension among three of the Chinese state's claims to legitimacy: economic development, moral education, and the decentralization of policy implementation. The article concludes that while economic development and decentralization create problems for the implementation of socialization policy at the local level, the central state still gains legitimacy for its role in promoting morality among the rising generation. GAUTHIER Pierre-Louis, LUGINBÜHL Odile (coord.) « Éducation et ruralités », Revue internationale d'éducation Sèvres, avril 2012, n° 59, p. 35-143. Près de la moitié de la population mondiale vit encore dans des zones considérées comme rurales et la question de l'éducation qui y est dispensée concerne tous les pays, car elle participe du principe d'égalité d'accès à l'enseignement. A partir de ce constat, le numéro propose une analyse des réalités de l'école en milieu rural, au-delà des stéréotypes ou des représentations passéistes qui lui sont habituellement attachés. Neuf articles, suivis d'une bibliographie commentée, éclairent la diversité des ruralités qui conditionnent le fonctionnement des écoles rurales sur les cinq continents. GOULAH Jason, Daisaku Ikeda, Language and Education, Routledge, 2013, 176 p. Daisaku Ikeda (b. 1928) is an international Buddhist leader, peacebuilder, prolific author, and the founder of the secular Soka kindergartens, elementary and secondary schools, women’s college and universities in seven countries across Asia and the Americas. He has emerged as an important educational philosopher and practitioner whose perspectives on dialogue, value-creation (soka), global citizenship, and the deep inner transformation he calls "human revolution" have informed the curriculum and instruction of thousands of teachers not only at the Soka schools, but also at numerous non-Soka schools and universities around the world. This volume brings together, for the first time in

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English, international scholars’ empirical and theoretical analyses of Ikeda’s contributions to language and education in a global context. Chine GU Mingyuan, Cultural foundations of Chinese education,Brill’s Series on Chinese Education, Brill Academic Pub/Leiden, 2014, 297 p. This book describes the evolution of Chinese education for more than 5,000 years, and analyzes in depth its interaction with Chinese culture. From the Imperial Civil Examinations to the Western Learning; from the transplant of Western systems of education to the New Democratic Education Movement; from the copying of the Soviet experience in education to the explorations for approaches to establish new education in China since the Economic Reforms in the late 1970s, this book provides unique analyses on conflicting elements in Chinese education, and leads to the understanding of the issues in modernizing education in China. Pakistan HALAI Anjum, « Equality or equity: Gender awareness issues in secondary schools in Pakistan », o International Journal of Educational Development Education Quality for Social Justice, vol. 31 n 1, janvier 2011, p. 44-49. This paper focuses on gender awareness issues as a dimension of addressing the wider issue of the quality of education in Pakistan from the perspective of social justice. In Pakistan classrooms, boys and girls learn separately and therefore teachers and others tend to think that there are no gender issues once access is achieved and the learners are in the classroom. However, beyond access there are several factors that compromise quality of education and raise issues for gender equity as an element of social justice. Taïwan HUANG Teng, « Cultural analyses in a Taiwanese kindergarten: A postcolonial reflection and study », o International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 33 n 1, janvier 2013, p. 15-24. The concept of homogenization is highlighted in the current discourse of postcolonialism in the educational arena. However, this concept strengthens the dimension of cultural convergence, but not the dimension of cultural divergence. Furthermore, an overly dualistic view is also aligned with the concept of homogenization and then leads to the neglect of the phenomenon of cultural hybridity and the studies of cultural differences. Through a qualitative study in a Taiwanese kindergarten, this study investigates whether any cultural hybridity appears in classroom practices, and what happens in the process. The results indicate that the concept of cultural hybridity is more suitable to explain the complex phenomena in schools, and both the ontologically and epistemologically cultural aspects are interwoven in the process of hybridity. Chine HWANG Kwang-Huo, Foundations of Chinese psychology: Confucian social relations, Springer/New York, 2012, 378 p. Mainstream psychology emanated from European-American and Judeo-Christian philosophical and scientific traditions. The application of this viewpoint, which embeds colonial and imperialist concepts is less relevant to Asian and other indigenous cultures. Although it has been accepted by non-Western scholars in an attempt to emulate Western scientific practice, the mainstream viewpoint is in a process of transformation to accommodate geographically relevant perspectives. In this light, Foundations of Chinese Psychology, bridges the gap between western and eastern traditions and elaborates on theories based on local phenomena, findings, and experiences by research methods that are contextually appropriate. […] Asie de l’Est HWANG Keumjoong, « Educational modes of thinking in Neo-Confucianism: a traditional lens for o rethinking modern education », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 14 n 2, juin 2013, p. 243-253. This article discusses the distinctive educational modes of thinking in Neo-Confucianism, with an interest of extracting Confucian reflective views for modern education of traditionally Confucian East Asia. Neo-Confucian typical modes of thinking on education are characterized as “heart-mind centered” and “learning as self-cultivation centered.” Neo-Confucianism regards education as the very task of perfecting as well as realizing the heart-mind, and furthermore puts emphasis on learning

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characterized as self-cultivation in accordance with the educational goal to perfect the heart-mind. Comparatively speaking, Neo-Confucian modes of thinking on education are more integral, essential, and convergent, whereas modern ones are more differentiated, functional, and divergent. […] Pakistan JACOBY Hanan G., MANSURI Ghazala, Crossing boundaries: gender, caste and schooling in rural Pakistan, Banque mondiale/Washington, juin 2011, 32 p. Retrieved from: http://www.econ.yale.edu/conference/neudc11/papers/paper_237.pdf Pakistan JAFFER Kulsoom, « School inspection and supervision in Pakistan: Approaches and issues », o Prospects, vol. 40 n 3, septembre 2010, p. 375-392. This article traces how the concept of educational inspection has evolved in Pakistan, especially in the province of Sindh, and discusses whether the existing inspection system helps to improve quality and establish accountability. The inspection system that originated in colonial days has evolved to incorporate the notion of using supervision to provide a range of support to school-based efforts to improve performance. The shift, however, has been in terminology only, since it has not signaled a major shift in how the job is carried out in practice. The article argues that as a strategy for establishing accountability and improving quality in education, inspection and supervision rely on several interdependent variables. Chine, Inde JI Zhe coord., « Religion, éducation et politique en Chine moderne = Religion, education and politics in modern China », Extrême-Orient Extrême-Occident, n° 33, novembre 2011, 256 p. Ce numéro examine les rapports du religieux et de l'éducatif en Chine de la fin du XIXe siècle jusqu'à aujourd'hui, en prenant en compte la pluralité religieuse chinoise (données historiques et anthropologiques). Il se focalise sur l'imbrication et la différenciation entre la religion et l'éducation, la laïcité et la sécularisation en Chine aujourd'hui. Les contributions sont organisées selon plusieurs axes : temple et école ; croyance et connaissance ; culte et culture. Le dernier article envisage le sécularisme et la religion comme mutuellement constitutifs et analyse cette relation dans une perspective comparatiste en se concentrant sur la Chine et l'Inde. Inde, Pakistan, Sri Lanka KAPOOR Dip, “BARUA Bijoy Kumar, DATOO Al-Karim, Globalization, culture, and education in South Asia: critical excursions, Palgrave Macmillan/New York, 2012, 232 p. This collection brings together an experienced group of South Asian/diasporic scholars in higher education, schooling and adult education to develop a regional perspective on the multiple implications of globalization and its cultural and educational imbrications in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Relying on a blend of policy, critical-theoretical and practice-based perspectives, the contributors describe and critically analyze key trends in the region, while pointing out new directions pertaining to future developments in education and culture in South Asia in relation to the contradictory implications of globalization in both urban and rural contexts. Pakistan KHAN Ayaz Muhammad,MIRZA Munawar S., « Implementation of Decentralization in Education in Pakistan: Framework, Status and the Way forward », Journal of Research and Reflections in o Education, vol. 5 n 2, 2011, p. 146–169. Implementation of Devolution Plan 2000 through Punjab Local Government Ordinance (PLGO) 2001 was a landmark in the history of decentralization in Pakistan. It was the first time when most of the political, administrative, and financial powers were devolved to district government. The objectives of this study were to explore whether implementation of devolution plan was followed in true spirit, to discover the focus and problems in its implementation and to identify the way forward. The data analysis show that though powers were devolved from provincial to district government but most of the academic, administrative and financial powers remained centralized at the top in the decision making hierarchy of the district.

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Pakistan KOMATSU Taro, « Decentralization and Accountability Contexts: District Education Officers' Perspectives on Education in Post-Devolution Pakistan », Journal of International Cooperation in o Education, vol. 14 n 2, mars 2012, p. 189-203. Retrieved from: http://ir.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/metadb/up/kiyo/AA11281847/JICE_14-2_189.pdf Through devolution reforms, district-level education managers in the developing world are working within a new accountability environment. This research examined district education officers' views regarding the role of education as it relates to tradition, gender and religion in post-devolution Pakistan, in order to gain insights into local education managers' accountability contexts in a conservative and educationally underdeveloped society. The data was collected through semistructured interviews with twelve district education officers in the North-West Frontier Province (presently called Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). It was found that the officers generally viewed the function of public schools as an agent of modernization, while acknowledging that schools should also transmit traditional values. Chine LAW Wing-Wah, « Educational leadership and culture in China: Dichotomies between Chinese and Anglo-American leadership traditions? », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. o 32 n 2, mars 2012, p. 273-282. This article explores the extent to which Chinese school leaders espouse dichotomous or integrated Chinese and Anglo-American leadership and management preferences. Data are drawn from questionnaires completed by school leaders and from semi-structured interviews with individual school leaders from different parts of China. The exploratory study shows that Chinese school leaders perceive a coexistence of Chinese and Anglo-American leadership and management values, rather than the domination of one over the other. The findings suggest that it is important to understand the impact of national cultures on leadership and management. Chine LAW Wing-Wah, « Culture, gender and school leadership: school leaders' self-perceptions in China », o Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, vol. 43 n 3, 2013, p. 295-322. Since the 1980s, numerous studies have demonstrated the influences of culture and gender on leadership, including school leadership. Such studies have been criticised, however, for being dominated by Anglo-American paradigms and frameworks and for under-exploring the roles of culture and gender on leadership in non-Western societies. With reference to China, this paper focuses on the relationship between gender and school leadership and explores gender differences between Chinese male and female school leaders in their leadership orientations. [...]The study finds mixed patterns of gender differences in Chinese school leadership, including stereotypical, non-stereotypical and no differences. This paper argues that these patterns can be interpreted as resulting from the dynamic interplay among traditional Chinese culture, contemporary political context and organisational settings into which Chinese school leaders are socialised and in which their leadership styles and behaviours are shaped and leadership is exercised. LI Jin, Cultural foundations of learning: east and west, Cambridge University Press, 2012, 385 p. Western and East Asian people hold fundamentally different beliefs about learning that influence how they approach child rearing and education. Reviewing decades of research, Dr. Jin Li presents an important conceptual distinction between the Western mind model and the East Asian virtue model of learning. The former aims to cultivate the mind to understand the world, whereas the latter prioritizes the self to be perfected morally and socially. Tracing the cultural origins of the two large intellectual traditions, Li details how each model manifests itself in the psychology of the learning process, learning affect, regard of one's learning peers, expression of what one knows, and parents' guiding efforts. Despite today's accelerated cultural exchange, these learning models do not diminish but endure.

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Vietnam LONDON Jonathan D., « Globalization and the governance of education in Viet Nam », Asia Pacific o Journal of Education, vol. 30 n 4, 2010, p. 361-379. In a globalizing world, local and global governance arrangements are increasingly interdependent, which produces harmonization in some instances and new tensions and contradictions in others. Analysis shows that successive waves of globalization have affected the governance of education in Viet Nam differently. It shows that the globalization of Viet Nam's social and political economy has not diminished the centrality of Viet Nam's state in the governance of education, but that the character of the state's governance roles has changed significantly. hat the character of the state's governance roles has changed significantly. Vietnam LONDON Jonathan D. (éd.), Education in Vietnam, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies/Singapore, 2011, 341 p. Vietnam is a country on the move. Yet contemporary Vietnam's education system is at a crossroads. Rapid economic growth has permitted rapid increases in the scale and scope of formal schooling, but there is a prevailing sense that the current education system is inadequate to the country's needs. Sunny assessments of Vietnam's "achievements" in the sphere of education have given way to a realization that the country lacks skilled workers. Some have even spoken of an "education crisis". [...] Featuring contributions from scholars and policy analysts from within and outside Vietnam, Education in Vietnam addresses key issues pertaining to the political economy of education, the provision and payment for primary and secondary education, and the development of vocational and tertiary education. Hong-Kong LUK-FONG Yuk Yee Pattie,BRENNAN Marie, « Women teachers in Hong-Kong: stories of changing o gendered identities », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 30 n 2, 2010, p. 213-229. In a time of mass schooling in most parts of the world, the discourse of the “woman primary teacher” is often the subject of discourse. Yet most stories of these women teachers emerge from other (Western) contexts, with little known about how changing education processes affect the gendered identities of women in other cultural settings. This paper explores how women teachers negotiate their gendered identities in Hong-Kong, where modernization has already mingled with the indigenous Chinese culture. It provides the stories of four Chinese women teachers as they engage in ongoing construction and negotiations of gendered identities over their life histories in Hong-Kong. All are ethnically Chinese, of different ages and at different stages of their personal and professional lives, and all have grown up in Hong-Kong. Chine MU Guanglun Michael,ZHENG Xinrong, JIA Ning, LI Xiaohua, WANG Shaoyi, « Revisiting educational equity and quality in China through Confucianism, policy, research, and practice », The Australian o Educational Researcher, vol. 40 n 3, août 2013, p. 373-389. The promotion of educational equity and improvement of educational quality in China are contextualised in tenets of Confucianism and policy directives, inspiring educational research and practice. In this paper, we first explore the historical and cultural roots of educational equity and quality through Confucianism and elaborate on the current policy priority that aims to address educational equity and quality. We then present an overview of research on equity and quality in Chinese education. Informed by Confucianism, policy, and research, we pose a framework to structure our investigation and analysis of three illustrative examples, namely the Special Post Teacher Plan, amalgamation of rural schools, and schooling of floating children. Pakistan NASEEM M. Ayaz, Education and gendered citizenship in Pakistan, Palgrave Macmillan/New York, 2010, 190 p. This book challenges the uncritical use of the long held dictum of the development discourse that education empowers women. Situated in the post-structuralist feminist position it argues that in its current state the educational discourse in Pakistan actually disempowers women. Furthermore,

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through a systematic examination of the educational discourse in Pakistan the book argues that the educational discourse (through curricula, textbooks and pedagogical practices) constitutes gendered identities and positions them in a way that exacerbates and intensifies inequalities between men and women on one hand and between the dominant and minority groups on the other. Gendered constitution and positioning of subjects also regulates the relationship between the subjects and the state in a way that women and minorities are excluded from the development and citizenship realms. Pakistan NAWAB Ali, « The Patterns of Organizational Learning in a Private Secondary School in Rural o Pakistan », Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 3 n 2, avril 2014, p. 135-149. This study explores the Pakistani patterns of organizational learning to understand how schools as organizations learn and improve in this context. […] It is found that schools in Pakistan are more inclined towards technical perspective of organizational learning; mostly relying on external sources to acquire knowledge for organizational improvement. It is due to the lack of strong intellectual capital as well as the lack of interactions among teachers inside schools. Vietnam NGUYEN-PHUONG-MAI Mai,TERLOUW Cees, PILOT Albert, « Cooperative Learning in Vietnam and o the West–East educational transfer », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 32 n 2, 2012, p. 137152. Under pressure of the continuing need to modernize, Vietnam is rapidly reforming its education system. Cooperative Learning (CL) with a Western-based model is being enthusiastically applied. This paper suggests that an authentic form of CL has long existed in the foundations of Vietnamese education. The reasons why Western-based CL is encouraged can be attributed to false universalism (the belief that a practice that originated from elsewhere can be “cloned” with similar results) and neocolonialism (the perpetuation of a colonial mindset under the pressure of financial loans).[…]. The paper indicates a strong need to identify and incorporate indigenous practice in the process of educational reform. Vietnam NGUYEN Thuy-Phuong, L’école française au Vietnam de 1945 à 1975 : de la mission civilisatrice à la diplomatie culturelle [en ligne]. Thèse de doctorat en sciences de l’éducation. Paris : Université de Paris V, 2014, 706 p. Disponible sur : http://www.theses.fr/2013PA05H009 Ce travail de recherche historique retrace l'évolution de l'école française au Vietnam de 1945 à 1975, en s'appuyant à la fois sur les archives et sur les témoignages d'anciens élèves et professeurs. […] Corée du Sud, Japon PARK Hyunjoon, Re-evaluating education in Japan and Korea: demystifying stereotypes, Routledge/Londres, 2013, 156 p. International comparisons of student achievement in mathematics, science, and reading have consistently shown that Japanese and Korean students outperform their peers in other parts of world. Understandably this has attracted many policymakers and researchers seeking to emulate this success, but it has also attracted strong criticism and a range of misconceptions of the Japanese and Korean education system. Directly challenging these misconceptions, which are prevalent in both academic and public discourses, this book seeks to provide a more nuanced view of the Japanese and Korean education systems. These include the idea that the highly standardized means of education makes outstanding students mediocre; that this emphasis on memorisation leads to a lack of creativity and independent thinking; that students' successes are a result of supplementary education; and that the Japanese and Korean education systems are homogenous to the point of being one single system. Corée du Sud PARK Hyunjoon, Korean Education in Changing Economic and Demographic Contexts, Springer, 2014, 209 p. This edited volume offers a comprehensive survey of Korean education in transition. Divided into three parts, the book first assesses the current state of Korean education. It examines how the educational system handles the effects of family background and gender in helping students smoothly transition

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from school to the labor market. Next, the book introduces growing concerns over whether the traditional model of Korean education can adequately meet the demands of the emerging knowledgebased economy. It examines features of new reform measures that have been introduced to help Korean education prepare students for the new economy. The third part discusses how an influx of diverse migrant groups, including marriage migrants, migrant workers, and North Korean migrants, and the rising divorce rate — two major demographic changes — challenge the fundamental assumption of cultural homogeneity that has long been a part of Korean education. Vietnam PHELPS Renata,GRAHAM Anne, HA THI TUYET Nhung, GEEVES Richard, « Exploring Vietnamese children's experiences of, and views on, learning at primary school in rural and remote communities », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 36, mai 2014, p. 33-43. Developing countries face an urgent imperative to enhance the equity, quality and relevance of their education provision. Many international non-government organisations (NGOs) involved in such countries seek to work collaboratively with government organisations and communities to establish infrastructure, ensure equity in provision, build teachers’ skills and raise participation rates.[…]. This paper reports on a study which talked to rural Vietnamese children about their learning, including what they liked and did not like about their schools, what helps them learn, their relationships and sense of wellbeing at school, and their perceptions of the value of learning for their futures. Japon REAR David, « Mixed messages: discourses of education in policy speeches to the Japanese Diet », o Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 31 n 2, 2011, p. 129-142. This paper will examine how Japanese education policy was articulated discursively from 1996 to 2010 in the semi-annual speeches of prime ministers to the Diet. It will identify three distinct discourses within these policy statements: a progressive discourse emphasizing the rights of individuals; a neo-liberal discourse of social independence and multi-tracked schooling; and a moral conservative discourse of patriotism and social conformism. In the 1990s, progressive and neo-liberal discourses held sway. Discursively, they were centred on key phrases such as kosei jūshi (“respect for individuality”) and sōzōsei (creativity), which were employed in a strategically ambiguous way to satisfy both progressive and neo-liberal demands. In the 2000s, however, right-wing politicians began to push a moral conservative agenda, which emphasized not the rights of individuals but their subservience to the wider needs of society and state. Hong-Kong REAR David, « Return of the ghost – to discipline or/and to teach? », Asia Pacific Journal of o Education, vol. 30 n 1, 2010, p. 105-120. This paper is a situated biographical reflection on the author's Hong-Kong teaching experience written using a narrative inquiry approach, describing attempts to generate innovative pedagogical practices. The journey explores how autocratic, traditional Chinese cultural expectations in Hong-Kong education have nurtured a commonsense belief in “discipline first and then teach”. […] The aim of this paper is to bring together theories and pedagogical models based on the sociology of education, social psychology and drama pedagogy in an effort to change how we teach marginalized students in one distinctive Chinese cultural context. Pakistan RIAZ Sanaa, New Islamic schools: tradition, modernity, and class in urban Pakistan, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, 204 p. Studies on Islamic schooling, particularly in Pakistan, largely focus on orthodox religious seminaries (madrasas) and presuppose that all types of religious schooling create the same religious subjectivity that is fundamentally extremist, anti-modern and anti-secular. In this groundbreaking narrative, Riaz attempts to cover this gap in ethnographic literature on Islamic education by presenting the first participant-observation based account of the new private Islamic schools that are fast becoming popular among middle and upper class urbanites. The schools combine modern secular education with traditional madrasa education. […] The author elucidates how the pedagogies, curriculum and the aspirations of the producers and patrons of knowledge in these schools modernize Islamic tradition to create diverse religious, secular, and class subjectivities in the students.

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Corée du Sud SO Kyunghee, KIM Jungyun, LEE Sunyoung, « The formation of the South Korean identity through national curriculum in the South Korean historical context: Conflicts and challenges », International o Journal of Educational Development, vol. 32 n 6, novembre 2012, p. 797-804. This study explores how the South Korean identity has been formed and transformed by examining the Korean national curriculum in its historical context. The study first examines how the Korean identity, previously formed by traditional ethnic values, has been transformed during the period of national modernization. It then describes the efforts to form a Korean identity through national curriculum reform amid globalization, a phenomenon that has rapidly progressed in Korea since the 1990s. It also discusses the conflicts within and challenges to Korean identity in the Korean curriculum reform process. Corée du Sud SO Kyunghee,LEE Sangeun, PARK Jiae, KANG Jiyoung, « The idea of cosmopolitanism in Korea's o national curriculum », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 34 n 1, 2014, p. 1-14. The idea of cosmopolitanism is emerging as an explicit aim of the Korean educational system. Over the course of its 5,000-year history, Korea has been characterized by a largely homogeneous population. In recent years, however, it has begun to face the challenges of a multicultural society, and thus the notion of cosmopolitanism plays an important role in providing a vision for the reinterpretation of Korean identity. The purpose of this study is to explore how cosmopolitan perspectives have been reflected in recent changes to the Korean national curriculum. To achieve this aim, the study analyses national curriculum documents put in place after the mid-1990s, when great debates over educational reform emerged in the wake of globalization. Malaisie SUA Tan Yao, « Decolonization, educational language policy and nation building in plural societies: The development of Chinese education in Malaysia, 1950–1970 », International Journal of o Educational Development, vol. 33 n 1, janvier 2013, p. 25-36. The two decades from 1950 to 1970 were a crucial period of educational reorganization in Malaysia that stemmed from the decolonization after the Second World War. This educational reorganization sought to address the perennial issue of nation building via educational language policy. The development of Chinese education was under severe threat as the British colonial government opted for a national school system that used English and Malay as the media of instruction in place of the segregated vernacular school system that had existed during the colonial period. Much to the relief of the Chinese, the national school system failed to materialize due to the lack of financial resources to reorganize the entire educational system. Corée du Sud SUNG Youl-Kwan,KANG Mi Ok, « The cultural politics of national testing and test result release policy o in South Korea: a critical discourse analysis », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 32 n 1, 2012, p. 53-73. This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the “test plus release” policy, the authors show how the government has achieved hegemonic power by shaping public opinion through the national testing contexts. Drawing on a critical discourse analysis of educational policy texts from the government and top 10 print media sources, this paper analyses how discourses on “accountability”, “the right to know” and “the fairness of the tests” have been produced, reproduced and recontextualized to favour particular perspectives. Pakistan TALBANI Aziz, « Power Discourse and Educational Policy in Pakistan: Challenges for a Developing Society in the Era of Globalization », Education and Society, vol. 29, janvier 2011, p. 21-37. The article examines the ideological forces that are influencing educational policies and curriculum debates in Pakistan. In Pakistan, ideology dominates education and addressing contemporary global economic and cultural challenges are not a priority. As the result, the government of Pakistan has failed to address the economic woes of people, consequently, poverty, illiteracy, crimes have

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increased. These conditions have added to already worsening plight of education, which is focused on religious ideology and not on preparing students for the job market or to face changing global society. Singapour TAN Charlene, « “Our Shared Values” in Singapore: A Confucian Perspective », Educational Theory, o vol. 62 n 4, 2012, p. 449–463. In this essay Charlene Tan offers a philosophical analysis of the Singapore state's vision of shared citizenship by examining it from a Confucian perspective. The state's vision, known formally as “Our Shared Values,” consists of communitarian values that reflect the official ideology of multiculturalism. This initiative included a White Paper, entitled Shared Values, which presented pejorative assessments of the ideals of “individual rights” and “individual interests” as antithetical to national interests. Rejecting this characterization, Tan argues that a dominant Confucian perspective recognizes the correlative rights of all human beings that are premised on the inherent right to human dignity, worth, and equality. Furthermore, Confucianism posits that it is in everyone's interest to attain the Confucian ethical ideal of becoming a noble person in society through self-cultivation. VAN DER VEER Peter, « Religion and education in a secular age: a comparative perspective », Extrême-Orient Extrême-Occident,1/2011, n° 33, p. 235-245. Disponible sur : www.cairn.info/revue-extreme-orient-extreme-occident-2011-1-page-235.htm L’éducation est un élément central de la religion, tant il est vrai que pour être capable de diffuser, de recevoir et d’interpréter le message religieux, il est nécessaire d’être éduqué. Mais l’éducation est également un aspect fondamental de l’État-nation moderne et laïque, lequel exige de ses sujets de se plier à la discipline d’un programme d’éducation nationale. Ce programme contient les notions élémentaires de la science moderne – requis pour l’éducation d’une main-d’œuvre adéquate – mais aussi les fondements de la culture nationale tels que la langue et l’histoire. Cet article envisage le sécularisme et la religion comme mutuellement constitutifs, de sorte que ce qui est séculaire est modelé par ce qui est religieux, et réciproquement. Il analyse cette relation dans une perspective comparatiste en se concentrant sur la Chine et l’Inde. […] Chine WANG Xiaohui, « L’éducation « à deux voies » en Chine », Revue internationale d’éducation de o Sèvres, n 59, mai 2012, p. 53-59. Dans le pays le plus peuplé du monde, la population rurale a longtemps dominé la société chinoise. Depuis 1978, l’industrialisation et l’urbanisation rapide entraînent de vastes migrations internes vers les villes et de région à région. Les enfants qui accompagnent ces migrations posent des problèmes aigus d’éducation dans un système qui n’est pas préparé à les accueillir. Par ailleurs, les enfants restant à la campagne sont loin de bénéficier d’une scolarisation égale, en dépit de la généralisation de l’enseignement obligatoire en 1986. WANG Yuxiang, Language, culture, and identity among minority students in China: the case of the Hui, Routledge Series on Schools and Schooling in Asia, Routledge/New York, 2013, 202 p. This book explores Hui (one of the Muslim minority groups in China) students’ lived experiences in an elementary school in central P. R. China from the perspectives of philosophical foundations of education and the sociology of education, the impact of their experiences on their identity construction, and what schooling means to Hui students. The book describes a vivid picture of how the Hui construct their own identities in the public school setting, and how the state curricula, teachers, and parents play roles in student identity construction. [...] The book provides historical, policy, and curricular contexts for readers to understand Hui students’ experiences in central China, and discusses the cultural differences between Han and Hui from a philosophical level. The book uses postcolonial theory to critique the assimilative nature of school education, the construction of Hui students’ identity from Han ideology, and the cultural hegemony of the mainstream Han group.[…]. Chine WEI Dan, « Parental influence on Chinese students' achievement: a social capital perspective », Asia o Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 32 n 2, 2012, p. 153-166. This paper examines how social capital formed by effective parental practices within Chinese families influences student achievement. Survey responses from 266 students from Grades 4 to 6 in a suburban elementary school in China were analysed to identify their perceptions of parental practices

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(support, pressure, help, monitoring and communication) at home. Coleman's concept of social capital serves as a framework to examine specific Chinese parental practices to influence their children's achievement. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that parent-child communication was the most important factor in promoting student learning, whereas high level of parental help was not viewed as a useful resource for increasing achievement. […] Chine XU Shuqin, LAW Wing-Wah, « School leadership and citizenship education: the experiences and struggles of school party secretaries in China », Educational Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 13, avril 2014, p. 1-19. Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10671-014-9166-8 Many scholarly works have examined school leadership, and many others have studied models for teaching citizenship education. Research combining both school leadership and citizenship education, however, is rare. The leadership of China’s school party secretaries (SPSs), who are the equivalent of school principals in the Chinese school system and are particularly responsible for leading and supervising citizenship education and political work on campus, is even less researched. Drawing on data from document analysis and interviews, this empirical study investigates the dynamics and complexities of SPSs’ school leadership. The findings reveal a complex division of power and labor between SPSs and principals, as well as the SPSs’ struggle to balance state control with their professional autonomy and their power struggles with principals over leadership in citizenship education. Chine YIN Hong-biao, « Societal culture and teachers’ responses to curriculum reform: experiences from o China », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 14 n 3, septembre 2013, p. 391-401. Educational change is intrinsically bound to the cultural characteristics of the society. However, the relationship between educational change and societal culture is rarely explored, especially in the context of mainland China. Following a 3-year qualitative research project, the present study explored the influence of societal culture on teachers’ responses to the national curriculum reform of upper secondary education in mainland China. The results generated three themes highly relevant to teachers’ responses to curriculum reform in Chinese culture, namely teachers’ obedience, teachers’ facework and teachers’ collaboration. These teachers’ responses reflected some Confucian ethics rooted in Chinese culture and explained the absence of radical teacher resistance to the national curriculum reform. Chine ZHAO Weili, « Prosternation malaise et honte en éducation dans la Chine contemporaine ? La servitude volontaire comme nouveau mode de gouvernement », Éducation et sociétés, n° 31, 2013/1, 2013, p. 65-80. Disponible sur : http://www.cairn.info/revue-education-et-societes-2013-1-page-65.htm Depuis 1997, des étudiants sont appelés à se prosterner devant leurs parents ou leurs enseignants en signe de gratitude. L'examen des controverses nées de ces rituels met en évidence un assemblage ou un désassemblage de principes culturels et sociaux imbriqués dans les débats de la société chinoise contemporaine. L'article problématise ces principes culturels et historiques autour de trois dimensions croisées : confusion Soi-corps, tension identitaire élève/enseignant et logique de représentation symbolique. Un raisonnement binaire sur la prosternation – vue comme l'expression la plus haute du confucianisme ou un rituel féodal de servilité– écarte toute autre interprétation des acteurs. […] ZHAO Yong , LEI Jing , LI Guofang , et al., Handbook of Asian education : a cultural perspective, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group/New York, 2011, 558 p. This Handbook provides a nuanced description and analysis of educational systems, practices, and policies in Asian countries and explains and interprets these practices from cultural, social, historical, and economic perspectives. Using a culture-based framework, the volume is organized in five sections, each devoted to educational practices in one civilization in Asia: Sinic, Japanese, Islamic, Buddhist, and Hindu. Culture and culture identities essentially are civilization identities; the major differences among civilizations are rooted in their different cultures. This framework offers a novel approach to capturing the essence of the diverse educational systems and practices in Asia. […]

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Chine ZHU Chang,DEVOS Geert, LI Yifei, « Teacher perceptions of school culture and their organizational o commitment and well-being in a Chinese school », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 12 n 2, mai 2011, p. 319-328. This study aims to analyze and validate the dimensions and specific features of a school culture in a Chinese context. A sample of 181 teachers from a Chinese primary and secondary school in Beijing participated in a survey that measures school organizational cultural characteristics and teacher organizational commitment and well-being as outcomes of school culture. Specific cultural characteristics of this school and their impact on teacher organizational commitment and well-being were identified. The findings provide important information for understanding a school culture in the Chinese context. It enriches the theory related to school culture and the research findings that have been identified in the Western settings.

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Atelier 2. Savoirs, curricula et pédagogies Workshop 2. Knowledge, curricula and pedagogy Japon AKIBA Motoko, SHIMIZU Kazuhiko, ZHUANG Yue‐Lin, « Bullies, victims, and teachers in Japanese o middle schools », Comparative Education Review, vol. 54 n 3, août 2010, p. 369-392. Since the 1980s, school bullying--"Ijime"--has been a major concern of educational policy in Japan. In Japanese schools, homeroom teachers provide guidance for students' psychological and social development, in addition to academic development. Homeroom teachers spend significant time counseling students, visiting their families, and developing a homeroom community where students feel a sense of belonging. When "Ijime" occurs in a classroom, the homeroom teacher is mainly responsible for resolving the case. However, despite the potential for homeroom teachers to reduce "Ijime," few researchers have examined the relations between students and their homeroom teachers and the consequences of this relation for "Ijime." Even less is known about what relationships "Ijime" victims and bullies have with their other subject teachers. […]

Inde ALAM Mohd. Sanjeer, Religion, community, and education: the case of rural Bihar, Oxford University Press/New Delhi, 2012, 258 p. In recent times, religion-based educational disparities in India, especially between Hindus and Muslims, have been the focus of passionate debate. Yet, there is considerable gap in understanding the dynamics of religion and propensity to education. This book assesses literacy and educational levels among Hindus and Muslims in rural Bihar as well as the disparity therein. The author uses a distinctive conceptual and analytical framework to examine educational disparities in schooling between these religious communities in particular. In doing so, he applies spatially embedded historical trajectories to examine their educational development. It is argued that religious communities have to be seen as spatially embedded rather than as homogeneous socio-cultural aggregates, for spatial located ness reflects varying and complicated patterns of socio-economic and educational outcomes. The study is based on extensive fieldwork conducted in rural Bihar, covering 300 households and 700 schoolchildren. It also draws upon empirical data from the Census and NSSO. Singapour ALVIAR-MARTIN Theresa, HO Li-Ching, SIM Jasmine B.-Y., YAP Pui-San, « The ecologies of civic competence: students' perceptions from one Singapore school », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, o vol. 32 n 4, 2012, p. 473-488. A growing body of research suggests that traditional assessments of democratic participation overlook students' present realities, and fail to capture the knowledge, skills and dispositions necessary to resolve public issues in the twenty-first century. Addressing these concerns, we employed an interpretive perspective in examining students' perceptions of civic competence in one Singaporean school. Analyses of qualitative data reveal students' perceived lack of civic competence to effect systemic change within their school environment and in the larger political arena. This perceived lack of civic competence can be attributed largely to rigid and hierarchical classroom, school and political structures, and the pragmatic focus of Singapore society. We discuss findings in light of civic education research, policy and practice. Japon BONDY Christopher, « Centring and marginalizing: the “soft middle” and Japanese minority o education », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 34 n 1, 2014, p. 93-106. Examining the gap between national level minority education policies and local implementation in Japan, this paper considers this gap as a “soft middle” whereby local communities and schools have considerable leeway in how they implement policies. In particular, this paper focuses on Japan's largest minority group, the burakumin and their educational experiences. It traces the origins of educational policies targeting burakumin and how these policies were designed with this soft middle in mind. Following this, the paper considers two different localized approaches, both under policies directed at the burakumin and after the termination of such policies. It argues that schools can selectively implement policies while still fitting within the parameters of the law. Finally, it demonstrates

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that considering the soft middle provides for a richer, more nuanced understanding of educational systems, beyond monolithic assumptions of national systems.

Inde CHUDGAR Amita, MILLER Karyn, KOTHARI Brij, « Relationship between household literacy and educational engagement : analysis of data from Rajkot district India », International review of education, vol. 58, n° 1, février 2012, p. 73-89. Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels and the household's engagement in the education of its child members. The findings on educational engagement were also compared across households with different wealth and income levels. Uniformly, indicators of household literacy levels were found to be more important in understanding a household's educational engagement than a household's wealth and income levels. Taïwan CHIU Mei-Shiu,WHITEBREAD David, « Taiwanese teachers’ implementation of a new ‘constructivist mathematics curriculum’: How cognitive and affective issues are addressed », International Journal o of Educational Development, vol. 31 n 2, mars 2011, p. 196-206. This paper aims to investigate the ways in which four Grade 5 teachers perceived and implemented a new constructivist mathematics curriculum, after all their past experience of traditional mathematics in Taiwan. The meaning and indicators of constructivist and traditional mathematics were explored and developed based on reviews of three countries’ mathematics curricula and studies on mathematics teaching. Through interviews and classroom observations, teachers’ practices were analyzed in these terms, separated into cognitive and affective aspects. Singapour CHOY William, TAN Charlene, Education reform in Singapore: critical perspectives, Prentice Hall/Singapore; New York, 2011, 274 p. Many ongoing developments in the world of educational theory and practice are considered in these 15 thoughtful essays on the processes of reform and reevaluation of Singapore's education system at present taking place. Eight papers deal with institutional reform, three with school leadership and teacher development and three with organisational management. Hong-Kong CHUN-LOK Fung, WING-YAN Yip, « The policies of reintroducing Liberal Studies into Hong-Kong o secondary schools », Educational Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 9 n 1, février 2010, p. 1740. This study focuses on the policy issues generated by the reintroduction of Liberal Studies and evaluates the predicted effectiveness of the proposed curriculum in Hong-Kong (HK) secondary schools. Theorised by Ball (1992) ‘policy cycle’, approximately 200 newspaper articles and 30 government documents were collected to identify the issues in the process of policy-making. The documentary inquiry shows that ‘Public Recognition’, ‘Learning Objectives’ and ‘Curriculum Structure’ were the three major issues surrounding the reintroduction. Little evidence of any ‘explicit’ political influence related to the government of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) is demonstrated. The interviews conducted later in this study illustrate that there were diversified opinions of the Liberal Studies curriculum. Chine – Shanghai CRAVENS Xiu Chen, CHU Hongqi, ZHAO Qian, « Defining School Effectiveness in the Reform for o Quality-Oriented Education », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 15 n , décembre 2011, p. 153-185. Quality-Oriented Education (su zhi jiao yu) is a national education reform initiative that presents ongoing opportunities and challenges to schools, local bureaus of education, and the overall educational system in China today. This chapter seeks to gain insight into if and how Quality-Oriented Education, 10 years into its enactment, has taken root in practice. […] Our review points out that the new mission of Quality-Oriented Education advocates educational equity, curriculum reform, and

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systemic support for school-based management. However, at the operational level, there are great variations in terms of content domain, focus, and function among school evaluation schemes with notable regional differences. Furthermore, schools are still caught between the existing system that measures school performance by achievement and the intended accountability scheme that calls for enhanced student ability. Inde DE Anuradha, KHERA Reetika, SAMSON Meera, OUP (India), Probe revisited: a report on elementary education in India, Oxford University Press/New Delhi, 2011. Coming a decade after the first Public Report on Basic Education (PROBE), this report is written from the perspective of those who despite yearning for good quality education find themselves excluded from learning and acquiring decent education. The data is based on the findings of a survey conducted in 2006, along the lines of an earlier survey conducted by PROBE in 1996 - it 'revisited' the same sample villages covering schools and households, with some modifications. Apart from basic and primary education, this report looks at upper-primary schooling in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan, and in Himachal Pradesh. It highlights major progress in areas such as schooling facilities and enrolment rates. At the same time, it finds that fundamental problems remain, such as low classroom activity, poor quality of education, and discrimination due to social disparities in schooling opportunities. Singapour DENG Zonghi, GONIPATHAN S., KIM-ENG Christine, Globalization and the Singapore Curriculum From Policy to Classroom, Springer Verlag, 2013, 279 p. His volume provides a multi-faceted and critical analysis of the Singapore curriculum in relation to globalization. First, it details reform initiatives established by the Singapore government to meet the challenges posed by globalization. Next, Globalization and the Singapore Curriculum presents how these reforms have been translated into programs, school subjects and operational frameworks and then examines, in turn, how well these have been implemented in schools and classrooms across the country. Through this examination, the book reveals how the initiatives, together with their curricular translation and classroom enactment, reflect on the one hand global features and tendencies and, on the other, distinct national traditions, concerns and practices. Inde GAFOOR K. Abdul, ASHRAF P. Muhammed, « Contextual influences on sources of academic selfefficacy: a validation with secondary school students of Kerala », Asia Pacific Education Review, o vol. 13 n 4, décembre 2012, p. 607-616. This study investigates the theorized sources of academic self-efficacy among the higher secondary school students of Kerala, India. mastery experience in the form of academic achievement, vicarious experience in the form of school image and social persuasion in the form of parental encouragement are included as the predictor variables of academic self-efficacy. Participants in the present study were 700 higher secondary school students of Kerala, selected using stratified random sampling. […] the superiority of school image over mastery experience in predicting academic self-efficacy is different from that found in the west, theoretically and empirically. In India, self-efficacy beliefs of youngsters continue to depend more on social and domestic factors than personal experience and mastery. Japon GALAN Christian coord., LEVI ALVARES Claude (coord.), « Séisme éducatif au Japon », Les dossiers des sciences de l'éducation, n° 27, 2012, p. 5-154. Au début des années 1990, le Japon a mis en place des réformes d'inspiration néolibérale avec une redéfinition du rôle de l'Etat. Le système éducatif s'est trouvé au centre de ces réformes avec des répercussions fortes pour les cycles primaire, secondaire et supérieur et des effets sur les pratiques professionnelles des enseignants, sur les élèves et leurs parents. Ce numéro qui réunit des chercheurs japonais (sociologues, historiens et théoriciens de l'éducation) dresse un bilan très critique des mesures adoptées par les gouvernements successifs considérant que les réformes initiées se sont traduites par des mesures de dérégulations, un renforcement des dispositifs de contrôle et une marchandisation et privatisation des pratiques scolaires.

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GAUTHIER Roger-François (coord.), « Le curriculum dans les politiques éducatives », Revue internationale d'éducation de Sèvres, n° 56, avril 2011, 168 p. Qu'est-ce qui doit être enseigné ? Comment en décide-t-on ? Dans de nombreux pays, ce qui est enseigné va de moins en moins de soi. Une des préoccupations majeures des systèmes éducatifs est liée à la question de la qualité des apprentissages. Partout ou presque, on se réfère au concept de curriculum pour contribuer de façon effective à l'amélioration des systèmes. Les États élaborent des constructions très diversifiées, selon la conception qu'ils ont des savoirs scolaires, selon leur organisation administrative plus ou moins décentralisée, ou encore selon la répartition des responsabilités entre l'échelon national et celui de chaque école. C'est un changement de perspective à l'échelle internationale : on cesse de se focaliser sur la seule scolarisation quantitative des élèves. GAUTHIER Roger-François, « Une autre façon de penser l’éducation ? », Revue internationale d'éducation de Sèvres, n° 56, avril 2011, p. 31-40. Disponible sur : http://ries.revues.org/1039 Chine, Corée du Sud, Hong-Kong, Singapour GOODWIN A. Lin, « Perspectives on high-performing education systems in Finland, Hong-Kong, China, South Korea, and Singapore: What lessons for the U.S.? ». In S. K. Lee, W.O. Lee, and E. L. Low (Eds.), Educational Policy Innovations: Levelling Up and Sustaining Educational Achievement, Springer/Singapore, 2014, p. 185-200. Singapour GOODWIN A. Lin, « Quality teachers, Singapore style ». In DARLING-HAMMOND L., LIEBERMAN A. (Eds.), Teacher education around the world, Taylor&Francis/New York, 2012, p. 22-43.

Singapour

GOPINATHAN Saravanan, « Fourth Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System », o Educational Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 11 n 1, février 2012, p. 65-70. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as providing for significant differences in the Singapore education story. Inde GOVINDA Rangachar, BANDYOPADHYAY Madhumita, « Social exclusion and school participation in o India: Expanding access with equity », Prospects, vol. 40 n 3, septembre 2010, p. 337-354. Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11125-010-9160-8#page-1 In recent years, increased demand and massive expansion have brought into Indian schools huge numbers of children who might not have attended in the past. Still, large numbers, and specific groups, of children remain excluded from schooling for various reasons, jeopardizing equitable access to elementary education. Further accentuating this inequity in provision, the quality of education remains deeply unsatisfactory, particularly for children from disadvantaged groups. This article explores the dimensions and issues related to exclusion from education and the policies and actions required to make educational expansion more equitable, which would contribute to pluralism and harmony and promote greater social cohesion.

Inde, Pakistan GOVINDA Rangachar, AHMED Manzoor eds., « Towards universal primary education in South Asia: bridging inequalities », Prospects, vol. XXXX, n° 3, n° 155, septembre 2010, p. 307-415. Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com/journal/11125/40/3/page/1 This special issue, by the guest editors Manzoor Ahmed and R. Govinda, focuses on important aspects of universal primary education in the four countries of South Asia with the largest populations: Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. The articles provide an overview of primary education in each country, including the contours of disparity and disadvantage, the policies and strategies adopted, as well as successes and constraints in pursuing these strategies. This issue might also help to orient future diagnoses and fruitful action in other regions.

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Inde GOVINDA Rangachar, Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions & Equity, National University of Educational Planning and Administration (India), Who goes to school?: exploring exclusion in Indian education, Oxford University Press/New Delhi, 2011, 480 p. The volume outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides statistical analysis of learners enrolled in school, out-of-school children, and learners vulnerable to exclusion. It suggests that meaningful access to education is an aspect of UEE that requires more than just full enrolment. Rather, it necessitates high attendance rates, progression through grades with no repetition, and learning outcomes which confirm that basic skills are being mastered. The contributors focus on various aspects ranging from malnutrition, gender and social equity, migration, dropout rates, and differentiation in schooling provisions to matters of teaching and governance. They analyse in depth the way in which educational access is conceptualized; in doing so, they also identify areas for future research. Chine GUO Linyuan, « New Curriculum Reform in China and its Impact on Teachers », Canadian and o International Education / Education canadienne et internationale, vol. 41 n 2, 2012, 20 p. Retrieved from: http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1171&context=cie-eci China, the developing country with the largest and oldest public education system, is transforming its education system through a nation-wide curriculum reform. This large-scale curriculum change signifies China's complex and multi-dimensional processes and endeavors in empowering its educational system to meet the challenges and opportunities in the era of globalization. This paper reports on an interpretive case study with a particular interest in understanding the impact of the nation-wide curriculum reform on teachers in urban areas. Findings from this study present the complex dimensions of teachers’ lived experiences during this dramatic education change and shed new insights on the current teaching profession in urban China. Singapour HARGREAVES Andy, « Singapore: the Fourth Way in action? », Educational Research for Policy o and Practice, vol. 11 n 1, février 2012, p. 7-17. The Fourth Way is distinguished by a paradigm shift in the change mindset of educational leaders of how they push educational frontiers to achieve a more sustainable future. It is defined not merely as a destination but a journey in itself. Second, it considers how Singapore presents an interesting case study of paving the Fourth Way through its many forward-looking educational initiatives and fidelity in the implementation of these reforms. In doing so, this article also sets the stage for the other articles in this volume which cover different aspects of the Singapore education story, from pre-primary to tertiary education, to teacher preparation, and leadership development to the internationalization of its teacher education programmes and how educational research translates into policy and practice in this unique nation. Singapour

HO Kong Chong, GE Yun, « Education and human capital management in a world city: the case of o

Singapore », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 31 n 3, 2011, p. 263-276. There is considerable evidence to suggest that the human capital needs of the world city differ from what Robinson calls “ordinary cities” or what Markusen and associates term as “second tier cities”. […]. This focuses on producer services and migration flows needs to be matched by an accompanying look at city-based strategies. This paper represents an attempt to provide this by providing a case history analysis of Singapore in three stages of growth – as port city, industrial city and as world city – in order to show how the evolving infrastructure associated with human capital (education, immigration and labour policies) allows human capital to be developed, attracted, harnessed, deployed, released and retained. Corée du Sud HONG Won-Pyo, « An international study of the changing nature and role of school curricula: from transmitting content knowledge to developing students’ key competencies », Asia Pacific Education o Review, vol. 13 n 1, mars 2012, p. 27-37. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate how key competencies can be incorporated into school curricula, what relevant instructional methods are needed and what institutional support is

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required to make school curricula based more on key competencies. For this, the study uses qualitative data from three schools (one each in South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand). The results indicate that a transformative approach, not an additive approach, is required. That is, teachers tend to restructure existing curricula to develop students’ key competencies instead of considering the latter as a new teaching component. Taïwan HUANG Teng, « Agents’ social imagination: The ‘invisible’ hand of neoliberalism in Taiwan's o curriculum reform », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 32 n 1, janvier 2012, p. 39-45. Neoliberalism has become the most dominant ideology in current world and educational researchers thus may need to disclose the ways in which neoliberalism affects education and curriculum and propose new strategies to cope with them. Through literature review, however, the author argues that perhaps because of the social and theoretical scope in the West, the existing analytical strategy, which mainly focuses on the influence of government policies, seems unsuitable for some non-Western countries. This paper reviews the Grade 1–9 curriculum reform in Taiwan's education system, and suggests that one of the neoliberalism's influences in education might be more ‘invisible’ because it reflects the public's/agents’ social imagination of this neoliberal world. Inde JAMI Froagh Ahmed,BURTON Lisa, CHAPMAN David W., « Does increasing instructional time lead to higher student achievement? Evidence from India », Asian Education and Development Studies, o vol. 1 n 3, octobre 2012, p. 208-221. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of students’ school attendance, gender, and size of their class with their achievement in two subject areas among early grade primary school students in rural India. Second, it examines the extent to which the relationship between students’ attendance and achievement differed by classroom. When examined across all students, attendance had either no relationship or a very weak relationship with achievement scores. However, the relationship between attendance and achievement varied significantly by classroom, indicating that students’ achievement differed by which teacher they had for class. Inde KIM Paul, BUCKNER Elizabeth, KIM Hyunkyung, MAKANY Tamas, TALEJA Neha, « A comparative analysis of a game-based mobile learning model in low-socioeconomic communities of India », o International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 32 n 2, mars 2012, p. 329-340. This study explores the effectiveness of a game-based mobile learning model for children living in underdeveloped regions with significant contextual variations. Data for this study came from a total of 210 children between the ages of 6–14 years old from six marginalized communities in India. The findings reveal that children with little or no previous exposure to technology were able to not only figure out the given mobile learning technology, but also solve a series of incrementally challenging problems by playing math games without specific intervention or instruction by adults. Corée du Sud, Hong-Kong KIM Doo Hwan, LAW Helen, « Gender gap in maths test scores in South Korea and Hong-Kong: Role of family background and single-sex schooling », International Journal of Educational o Development, vol. 32 n 1, janvier 2012, p. 92-103. Using PISA 2006 data, we explore the role of family background and single-sex schooling in girls’ disadvantage in maths in South Korea and Hong-Kong. This disadvantage is found to be associated with single-sex schooling, but not with family background. Attending a girls’ school confers a benefit only in South Korea, whereas the gendered curriculum counteracts the selectivity advantage of girls’ schools in Hong-Kong. Inde KING Kenneth, « The geopolitics and meanings of India's massive skills development ambitions », o International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 32 n 5, septembre 2012, p. 665-673. This paper interrogates the drivers and meanings behind the dramatic rise of technical and vocational education and training in the policy and political agenda of India. What are the assumptions about the existing traditions and character of India's culture or cultures of skills development? Is the massive

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planned expansion of skilled people in India simply more of the same, or is there a new paradigm involved? Singapour KOH Kim H., PARIS Scott G., « Developing new reading assessments to promote beginning reading o in Singapore », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 12 n 1, mars 2011, p. 23-33. Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children’s developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before articulating the need for developing the new reading assessments to enhance teachers’ capacity in assessing children’s beginning reading for formative purposes. Singapour KOH Hak Hiang, GURR David, DRYSDALE Lawrie, ANG Li Li, « How school leaders perceive the leadership role of middle leaders in Singapore primary schools? », Asia Pacific Education Review, o vol. 12 n 4, décembre 2011, p. 609-620. This study investigated the leadership role of middle leaders in Singaporean primary schools, as seen from the perspectives of principals and vice principals. […]The purpose of this paper is to provide a rich description of the leadership role of middle leaders as perceived by the school leaders. Seven major themes were identified: (1) teaching and learning; (2) building vision and setting directions; (3) leading and managing teachers; (4) communicating; (5) continuing leadership development; (6) changing role; and (7) challenges. Singapour LAWRENCE Christine Anne,CHONG Wan Har, « Teacher collaborative learning through the lesson study: identifying pathways for instructional success in a Singapore high school », Asia Pacific o Education Review, vol. 11 n 4, décembre 2010, p. 565 -572. Research shows teacher collaborative learning to be a powerful vehicle to mobilise teacher instructional change and pedagogical practices, and to improve student achievement. For such undertakings to have positive impact, understanding the visible features of collaborative structures may not be sufficient to ensure sustainable practice. Instead, there is a need to identify underlying pathways that provide for successful instructional improvement. The purpose of this qualitative study is to obtain deeper insights into teacher outcomes arising from this practice and to identify aspects of the lesson study structure and processes that afford such opportunities. Chine LEUNG Cynthia, RUAN Jiening eds., Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Chinese Literacy in China, Springer/Netherlands, 2012, 219 p. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the country has witnessed a dramatic increase in its literacy rate, but not without challenges. The essays in this volume provide a comprehensive, cross-disciplinary look at changes in Chinese literacy education from ancient times to the modern day.[…] Japon LEVI ALVARES Claude, « Une privatisation inégalitaire des usages scolaires : Famille et éducation au Japon », Revue internationale d'éducation de Sèvres, n° 62, avril 2013, p. 39-48. Le modèle centralisé de l'éducation japonaise a connu d'importantes transformations au cours des vingt dernières années. Face à des établissements scolaires sommés de se démarquer et de décliner leur caractère propre, les parents ont été invités à se transformer en consommateurs avisés. Les aménagements de la carte scolaire et l'augmentation de l'alternative privée dans les grandes métropoles ont renforcé les tendances à la clientélisation dans un système déjà caractérisé par l'expansion de l'industrie privée des Juku. L'auteur retrace cette évolution et interroge le renforcement des inégalités qu'elle induit.

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Singapour LIM Leonel, « Meritocracy, elitism, and egalitarianism: a preliminary and provisional assessment of o Singapore's primary education review », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 33 n 1, 2013, p. 114. Meritocracy functions in Singapore as the key principle of governance and educational distribution. However, the concept of meritocracy itself contains a number of inherent contradictions, most evidently witnessed in the tension between its egalitarian and elitist strands. This tension is documented in the recommendations of Singapore's recent primary education review, already accepted by the Ministry of Education and to be implemented in the coming years. This article considers these recommendations against the backdrop of a tentative movement towards egalitarianism in educational distribution. Specifically, it provides a preliminary and provisional assessment of how far they would go towards providing for greater educational equity and, therefore, in recovering the ideology of meritocracy in the nation-state. Singapour LOSSMAN Hans, SO Hyo-Jeong, « Toward pervasive knowledge building discourse: analyzing online and offline discourses of primary science learning in Singapore », Asia Pacific Education Review, o vol. 11 n 2, juin 2010, p. 121-129. This research examined discourses in classroom and online learning environments where the knowledge building community model was enacted to foster deep understanding in science learning in singapore primary classes. This study posited that discourse is a fundamental form of learning that reveals how knowledge building is enacted and embodied by a community of learners. discourses in classroom lessons and online postings were analyzed from both quantitative and qualitative views. Singapour LOW Ee-Ling, LEE Sing-Kong, « Bringing Singapore’s teacher education beyond its shores », o Educational Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 11 n 1, février 2012, p. 43-51. In recent years, education systems around the world have been keeping a keen eye on rankings of student achievement as measured by internationally benchmarked tests. This has led to considerable attention being paid to teasing out success factors that may account for countries that have emerged top of the ranks or those that have shown the most rapid improvement from one test period to the next.[…] In this article, one such effort of internationalisation is focused on i.e., teacher education and professional development programmes. Singapour LOW Ee Ling,LIM Suat Khoh, CH'NG Alan, GOH Kim Chuan, « Pre-service teachers' reasons for o choosing teaching as a career in Singapore », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 31 n 2, 2011, p. 195-210. As the national teacher education institute in Singapore, the National Institute of Education (NIE) prepares all teachers seeking to be employed within the education service in Singapore. In the last decade, NIE's enrolment for initial teacher preparation programmes has grown significantly, with peaks in numbers during the recession years. There is also some evidence of attrition when beginning teachers complete their 3-year bond with the Ministry of Education, which sponsors their teacher education programme. […]. This paper presents the survey findings on pre-service teachers' reasons for choosing teaching as a career and discusses the differences between cohorts of different programmes. Corée du Sud MOON Rennie J., KOO Jeong-Woo, « Global Citizenship and Human Rights: A Longitudinal Analysis of Social Studies and Ethics Textbooks in the Republic of Korea », Comparative Education Review, o vol. 55 n 4, novembre 2011, p. 574-599. What happens to traditional civic notions of nation, national identity, and constitutional rights when national curricula incorporate ideas of global citizenship, other national identities, diversity, and human rights? Using a longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we address this issue by analyzing the nature of changes in South Korean civic education textbooks. Findings indicate that national citizenship themes remain core elements but that their emphases have weakened, while global citizenship themes have dramatically increased, especially in the 1990s and 2000s. In addition, the content and

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presentation of textbooks have become increasingly learner-centered, encouraging students to become self-directed, empowered individuals in a global society. Hong-Kong MORRIS Paul, ADAMSON Bob, Curriculum, schooling and society in Hong-Kong, Hong-Kong University Press/Hong-Kong, 2010, 231 p. Hong-Kong is a fascinating place for the study of curriculum. Its schooling system is influenced by the legacies of a Chinese tradition and British colonialism and was developed at a time when, around the world, that state was taking more responsibility for the education of young people and educational policies were increasingly influenced by the impact of globalization. […] This book provides a comprehensive introduction to curriculum as a field of study in a way which highlights its inherent dilemmas and complexities by illustrating the diverse ways in which a curriculum can be developed and analyzed. It also presents a specific analysis of the Hong-Kong school curriculum and highlights the ways in which the curriculum both reflects and changes in response to broader socio-political shifts. Inde MUKHOPADHYAY Rahul, SRIPRAKASH Arathi, « Global frameworks, local contingencies: policy translations and education development in India », Compare: A Journal of Comparative and o International Education, vol. 41 n 3, 2011, p. 311-326.

Policies and programmes pursuing the universalisation of elementary education (UEE) in developing nations have been influenced by a set of complex forces in international, state, and local arenas. This paper explores how a large ‐scale standard market ‐oriented discourse Inde MULEY D. S., PANT Daya, « Douleurs et espoirs de l’apprentissage scolaire », Revue internationale o d’éducation de Sèvres, n 57, septembre 2011, p. 65-75. Dans un pays caractérisé par une extraordinaire diversité des infrastructures et de la qualité de l’enseignement et où, comme partout, les enfants à l’école n’ont guère d’autre choix que de suivre des programmes scolaires structurés avec des emplois du temps bien définis, les auteurs s’efforcent d’explorer les sources du plaisir et de l’ennui à l’école en Inde essentiellement sur le plan de l’apprentissage, des programmes scolaires, de l’intérêt ou du désintérêt pour une matière, des infrastructures, du lien entre apprentissage et choix d’une orientation professionnelle, de la crainte du châtiment corporel et du harcèlement, des examens, et enfin des repas scolaires. Les remarques et observations se fondent principalement sur les entretiens que les auteurs ont menés avec des élèves. MÜLLER Gotelind, Designing history in East Asian textbooks: identity politics and transnational aspirations, Routledge studies in education and Society in Asia, Routledge/Abingdon, 2011, 305 p. This book analyses the efforts throughout East Asia to deploy education for purposes of political socialization, and in particular in order to shape notions of identity. The chapters also examine the trend of ‘common textbook initiatives’, which have recently emerged in East Asia with the aim of helping to defuse tensions arguably fuelled by existing practices of mutual (mis)representation. These are analysed in relation to the East Asian political context, and compared with previous and ongoing endeavours in other parts of the world, particularly Europe, which have been keenly observed by East Asian practitioners. Written by a group of international education experts, chapters discuss the enduring focus on the role of curricula in inculcating homogenous visions of the national self, and indeed homogenized visions of significant 'others'. Inde NAUDET Jules, « Mobilité sociale et explications de la réussite en France aux États-Unis et en Inde », Sociologie, n° 1, vol. 3, 2012. Disponible sur : http://sociologie.revues.org/1170 Cet article entend contribuer à l’étude des modalités d’ajustement au nouveau statut social des personnes en forte mobilité sociale à travers une analyse des modes d’explication de la réussite. Ce travail s’appuie sur une enquête menée en France, en Inde et aux États-Unis auprès de 150 personnes issues de milieux modestes et ayant accédé à des positions prestigieuses dans la haute fonction publique, le secteur privé et l’université. Contrairement aux travaux sur les déterminants de la

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réussite se situant généralement en rupture avec le sens commun des individus, la perspective retenue ici consiste en une approche compréhensive des explications « indigènes » de la réussite. Singapour NG Pak Tee, « An Examination of School Leadership in Singapore through the Lens of the Fourth o Way », Educational Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 11 n 1, février 2012, p. 27-34. School leadership is an important factor in educational reform and school transformation. This article aims to examine the challenges of school leadership in Singapore through the lens of the Fourth Way. In particular, this article makes reference to three messages in the Fourth Way and examines the paradoxes and challenges faced by school leaders in Singapore associated with each message. The article argues that the government both drives and steers the education system; that democracy and professionalism, and bureaucracy and market coexist; and that educators embrace both accountability and responsibility. Singapour NG Pak Tee, « Developing Singapore school leaders to handle complexity in times of uncertainty », o Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 14 n 1, mars 2013, p. 67-73. In times of uncertainty, university faculties have a duty to prepare school leaders to handle complexity, as the number of variables in the educational system and the interactivity of variables increase exponentially. The Leaders in Education Program (LEP) is a 6-month full-time program at the Singapore National Institute of Education (NIE). The LEP aims to prepare especially selected viceprincipals and ministry officers in Singapore for school leadership. […] This article describes the efforts of the LEP in developing the ability of school leaders to deal with complexity. It also examines in detail one particular component of the LEP, the Creative Action Project, to illustrate how this is done in practice, and analyzes the views of participants on their learning through the project. Chine NI Yujing, LI Qiong, LI Xiaoqing, ZOU Jun, « China's New Millennium Curriculum Reform in Mathematics and its Impact on Classroom Teaching and Learning », International Perspectives on o Education and Society, vol. 15 n , décembre 2011, p. 99-124. This chapter provides a synthesis of the research project which investigated whether or not the most recent mathematics curriculum reform has reached the classroom and influenced classroom practice and student learning in the mainland China. Three types of evidence for change as a result of the curriculum reform were examined. These included the beliefs and perceptions of teachers about learning and teaching mathematics, the cognitive features of learning tasks and of classroom interaction that were implemented in classroom, and student learning outcomes. […]. Findings of the project provide the converging evidence that the curriculum reform has resulted in some of the expected changes. Reform teachers were more likely to hold a dynamic view of mathematics and to indicate the importance to provide students the learning opportunity to hypothesize, to proof, and to communicate in learning mathematics. Corée du Sud PARK Joo-Ho, JEONG Dong Wook, « School reforms, principal leadership, and teacher resistance: o evidence from Korea », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 33 n 1, 2013, p. 34-52. Many countries design and implement school change with a focus on the fundamental reconfiguration in the structures of schooling. In this article, we examined the relationship between principal leadership and teacher resistance to school reforms driven by external interveners. […]. Our results revealed the importance of human aspects of school changes and reforms, in particular, driven by the external intervener. We first showed that a principal's initiative leadership is significantly related to the reduction of teacher resistance to change, in particular on the emotional and behavioural dimensions. Not surprisingly, teachers showed a higher level of resistance when their schools participate in the government-driven reform. Finally, teacher resistance depended upon characteristics of teachers as well as principals.

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Corée du Sud PARK Minjeong,SUNG Youl-Kwan, « Teachers' perceptions of the recent curriculum reforms and their implementation: what can we learn from the case of Korean elementary teachers? », Asia Pacific o Journal of Education, vol. 33 n 1, 2013, p. 15-33. This study examines: 1) how Korean elementary school teachers perceive recent curriculum reforms; 2) where their perceptions emanate from; and 3) what support teachers need in order to implement curriculum reforms actively and effectively. This study has shown that teachers generally harbour negative and unconstructive feelings about curriculum reform. Singapour POON Angelia Mui Cheng, « Constructing the cosmopolitan subject: teaching secondary school o literature in Singapore », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 30 n 1, 2010, p. 31-41. This article discusses the ambitious educational reforms of the Singapore government in response to the challenges of globalization vis-à-vis the specific issues arising from the case of teaching Literature in secondary schools. It shows how the Singapore state is invested in a particular view of globalization and argues how recent scholarly moves to recuperate the notion of cosmopolitanism may provide an alternative view. Singapour POON Chew Leng, « Fourth way in action: translation of research into policy and practice », o Educational Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 11 n 1, février 2012, p. 19-25. This article discusses the relationship between policy, research and practice in the Singapore education landscape in response to Hargreaves and Shirley’s arguments of Fourth Way principles of educational change. Examples of recent policy developments in Singapore are used to illustrate the interaction between judicial uses of research data and pragmatic knowledge of classroom practices and stakeholders’ interest in policy formulation in Singapore. It is advocated that a key ingredient of the success of Singapore’s education system is the unity of vision and mission of the people behind policy, research and practice. Japon QI Jie, « Diversity and multiculturalism in Japan: what is called into question? », Educational o Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 10 n 2, juin 2011, p. 105-114. This study explores the different ways in which the notion of multiculturalism in Japan has been influenced by various social and historical trajectories. Since the Japanese government started to promote “internationalization” in the 1980’s, slogans such as “international exchange,” “cultural exchange,” and “understanding of other cultures” have become the most popular expressions among policy makers and educators. This article demonstrates that the notion of Japanese multiculturalism is intricately and deeply embedded in the society, culture, and education system of Japan. It also points out that this particularly Japanese style of multiculturalism excludes some immigrants who have lived in Japan for generations, and that this exclusion is not the result of ideological products, but rather the effect of multiple power relations.

Inde

SAJEEV P. B. ,DAVID Graciela Padoani, « Favoriser l’autonomie économique des femmes », Revue o internationale d’éducation de Sèvres, n 58, décembre 2011, p. 57-66.

L’initiative iLEAD (Initiative for Livehood Education and Development) initiée depuis 2005 par Aide et Action International (AEAI), une ONG présente en Inde depuis 1981, vise à améliorer le processus d’insertion des jeunes issus de milieux défavorisés, et notamment les femmes, en renforçant leur autonomie sociale, financière et professionnelle. Le programme couvre aujourd’hui dix-neuf États en Inde et a permis de former cent mille jeunes, 75 % d’entre eux ayant ensuite obtenu un emploi rémunérateur. Cette initiative vise également à favoriser l’adoption d’approches similaires par des programmes de formation gérés par les États et au niveau du gouvernement fédéral. SARANGAPANI Padma, « Soft Disciplines and Hard Battles », Contemporary education dialogue, 2011, vol.8 n° 1, p. 67-84. Many of us who conduct research on and teach education in institutes of higher education have been socialised to think of education as a discipline. Yet not only do we find this status disputed, but we also

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frequently encounter challenges to our claims as experts and to the form and structure of our discourse, both by members of the public and, more disconcertingly, by fellow academics from other disciplines. Some of these experiences can be explained through the idea of ‘soft discipline’. More recent work on the characteristics of, and interactions between, disciplines, drawing on their epistemological, sociological and economic dimensions, further helps to put these encounters in perspective. […] Chine SARGENT Tanja,CHEN Mingyu, WU Yi-Jung, CHEN Chentong, « Wearing New Shoes to Walk the Old Road: The Negotiation of Opposing Imperatives in High School New Curriculum Classes in o China », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 15 n , décembre 2011, p. 7998. When college entrance examinations act as gatekeepers to modern-sector jobs, the entire education system then becomes oriented toward these examinations. This occurs at the expense of learning for the sake of learning and other aspects of education that address the holistic development and wellbeing of students. In recent years in China, there has been growing concern that examination competition has compromised the quality of classroom teaching and learning and is detrimental to the development of skills necessary for the global knowledge economy. These concerns have given rise to a far-reaching set of education reforms known as the New Curriculum reforms which have aimed to move students to the center of teaching and learning and to transform teaching and learning so as to foster such capacities as creativity, innovation, collaboration, self-expression, engagement, enjoyment of learning, inquiry skills, problem-solving abilities, and ability to apply knowledge in practice.

Inde

SEN Amartya, « Primary schooling in West Bengal », Prospects, vol. 40 n 3, septembre 2010, p. 311-320 o

With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women’s development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work—helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from research, and engaging in advocacy. The present article is based on Sen’s introduction to a Pratichi study of primary education in West Bengal, released in December 2009, which compares the results of surveys conducted at an interval of almost a decade. Sen’s significant findings and insightful observations and recommendations have relevance much beyond West Bengal. Singapour SOH Kaycheng, « Finland and Singapore in PISA 2009: similarities and differences in achievements and school management », Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, vol. o 44 n 3, 2014, p. 455-471. In PISA 2009, Finland and Singapore were both ranked high among the participating nations and have caught much attention internationally. […] In spite of the finding of no differences in PISA Reading achievement, principals in Finland and Singapore differ somewhat in school management and involvement in school matters. It is suggested that some intervening variables (e.g., teachers’ quality and instruction) are needed to explain the correlation (or the lack of it) between principals’ management styles and student Reading achievement. It is also suggested that school principals’ management styles might have been influenced by the cultural milieus of the countries and have influenced students’ social-emotional development, which is not measured by PISA. Inde SRIPRAKASH Arathi, « Child-centred education and the promise of democratic learning: Pedagogic messages in rural Indian primary schools », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. o 30 n 3, mai 2010, p. 297-304. Global and national agendas to achieve universal primary education and improve the ‘quality’ of school provision in developing countries have identified the need to reform classroom pedagogy. Since the 1990s, child-centred ideas in particular have been utilised in teacher-training programmes and school reforms across many parts of Africa and Asia with the intention of creating more childfriendly, democratic learning environments. Analysing episodes from classroom observations conducted in a rural Indian primary school, this paper reveals the tensions experienced by one teacher

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in handing over greater classroom control to pupils. It provides insight into the complex processes of pedagogic interaction, and sheds light on some of the possibilities and conditions for achieving childcentred pedagogic change in such development contexts. Corée du Sud SUNG Youl-Kwan,PARK Minjeong, CHOI Il-Seon, « National construction of global education: a critical review of the national curriculum standards for South Korean global high schools », Asia o Pacific Education Review, vol. 14 n 3, septembre 2013, p. 285-294. In this paper, the authors investigate what global visions of education are reflected in the selected national curriculum standards, with special reference to two seemingly contradictory forces: globalization and nationalism. This paper examines the socio-economic and cultural foundations of the curriculum and explains how the national curriculum for South Korean global high schools symbolically appropriates global education for the purpose of national competitiveness. Our findings show that, although the selected curriculum document alludes to the importance of international understanding and of global citizenship education, its primary objective is to provide students with knowledge and skills for national competitiveness and to uphold, rather than weaken, national identity in reaction to global pressures. Japon TAKAYANAGI Taeko, SHIMOMURA Takayuki, « Indigenous women facing educational disadvantages : the case of Ainu in Japan », Prospects, vol. XLIII, n° 3, n° 167, septembre 2013, p. 347-360. This paper addresses the life and educational experiences of Ainu women, using the framework of postcolonial feminist theory. It explores the extent to which two factors—gender and ethnic minority status—affect young Ainu women as they attempt to enter mainstream society. The authors analyse life history interviews from three Ainu women aged 25. These women face hardships in continuing their education because of unsupportive school atmospheres and family financial difficulties. Ainu women also face discrimination because of gender and ethnicity throughout their lifetimes, especially in employment. Singapour TAN Charlene, « Educational policy trajectories in an era of globalization : Singapore and Cambodia », Prospects, vol. XXXX, n° 4, décembre 2010, p. 465-480. This paper critically discusses the educational policy trajectories of Singapore and Cambodia in an era of globalization. Drawing upon David Johnson’s five metaphors to describe the historical and political forces that shape educational policy trajectories, the paper argues that Cambodia’s current educational policy trajectory is characterized by the “politics of compelling” while Singapore’s situation is more akin to the “politics of selling”. Chine Shanghaï TAN Charlene, « The culture of education policy making: curriculum reform in Shanghai », Critical o Studies in Education, vol. 53 n 2, 2012, p. 153-167. This paper explores the culture of education policy making in Shanghai using the conceptual tool of a ‘global assemblage’. A global assemblage is essentially a collection of ideas and practices that arise from the interplay between a global form and situated sociocultural elements. Focusing on the global form of curriculum reform, this paper explains how the Shanghai municipal government justifies the introduction of the ‘Second Curriculum Reform’ using the global imperative while maintaining its socialist ideology and central control on high-stakes exams. This paper highlights the active roles played by the municipal government and other local educational stakeholders in assembling their own logics, tactics and counter-measures in the contested space of the assemblage. Singapour TAN Jason, « Compulsory education in Singapore – who benefits? », Asia Pacific Journal of o Education, vol. 30 n 4, 2010, p. 401-418. Compulsory education was legislated in Singapore in 2000. This came several decades after the attainment of universal primary education and after numerous assertions on the part of the government that such legislation was unnecessary. Also interesting is that the period of compulsory education was limited to six years. The article discusses the background to the introduction of the

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compulsory education legislation and highlights ongoing tensions as the Singapore state attempts to grapple with the role of education in economic development and social cohesion. TAN Jason, « Education in Singapore: Sorting Them Out? » In CHONG Terence (Ed.), Management of Success: Singapore Revisited, SEAS/Singapore, 2010, p. 288-308. Singapour TAN Kelvin, « Assessment for learning in Singapore: unpacking its meanings and identifying some o areas for improvement », Educational Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 10 n 2, juin 2011, p. 91-103. This article examines the meanings and impact of ‘Assessment for Learning’ initiatives in schools against the back drop of assessment reform in Singapore since 1997. It is argued that Assessment for Learning’ is understood in different ways, and these different meanings do not always benefit students’ learning. The different meanings of ‘Assessment for Learning’ in Singapore are unpacked, and three areas for improvement for Assessment for Learning are suggested—clear standards for effective feedback practices, assessment for sustainable learning and assessment for integrating holistic learning. Singapour TAN Oon Seng, « Fourth Way in action: teacher education in Singapore », Educational Research for o Policy and Practice, vol. 11 n 1, février 2012, p. 35-41. Policy makers are often looking for solutions to develop their educational systems in today’s highly competitive knowledge-based economy. Hargreaves and Shirley’s Fourth Way provides a useful approach in analysing policy trends, successes and pitfalls, based on an observation of practices and research evidences in the west, particularly, the USA and the UK. This article discusses and illustrates how teacher education in Singapore reflects the Fourth Way in action. Singapour TOH Yancy,SO Hyo-Jeong, « ICT reform initiatives in Singapore schools: a complexity theory o perspective », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 12 n 3, septembre 2011, p. 349-357. This paper argues that the lack of systemic frame of reference may have explanatory power over such less than impressive performance of ICT in education. Tracing the trajectory of Singapore’s ICTrelated policies in the educational sector, this paper adopts the complexity lens to study the systemic policy changes that are imbued in the different stages of Singapore’s ICT-based reforms. In particular, the paper delves into the three constructs of complexity theory: self-organisation, coevolution and fitness landscape. Hong-Kong TONG Siu Yin Annie, « Lessons learned? School leadership and curriculum reform in Hong-Kong », o Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 30 n 2, 2010, p. 231-242. This paper examines the processes of implementing curriculum reform in schools. Specifically, it investigates how schools learn lessons from previous experiences of reform and apply them when challenged by new reforms. The context for this study is Hong-Kong's New Secondary School Curriculum (NSSC), with particular reference to the subject of English Language. Research into the enactment of change over the last decade tells a story of weak leadership and management by policy makers, schools leaders and teachers. Key areas of weakness – poor management of change by school leaders, teachers' lack of understanding of the changes, and weak teacher collaboration – were pinpointed as reasons for the dismal results of curriculum change. This study investigates whether these areas of weakness were also in the implementation of the NSSC. Inde TSUJITA Yuko, « Factors that prevent children from gaining access to schooling: A study of Delhi slum o households », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 33 n 4, juillet 2013, p. 348357. This paper examines the factors that prevent slum children aged 5–14 from gaining access to schooling in light of the worsening urban poverty and sizable increase in rural-to-urban migration. Bias against social disadvantage in terms of gender and caste is not clearly manifested in schooling, while migrated children are less likely to attend school. I argue that the lack of preparation for schooling in the pre-schooling ages and school admission procedures are the main obstacles for migrated children.

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The most important implication for universal elementary education in urban India is raising parental awareness and simplifying the admission procedures. Japon TSUNEYOSHI Ryoko, « Three Frameworks on Multicultural Japan: Towards a More Inclusive o Understandin », Multicultural education review, vol. 3 n 2, septembre 2011, p. 125-156. Retrieved from: http://journals.sfu.ca/mer/index.php/mer/article/download/27/28 In many parts of the world, societies are facing new forms of cultural diversification, and are struggling to redefine the diversity within. This paper focuses on the Japanese case. The paper traces the postwar cultural diversification of Japanese society, and examines the impact of internal internationalization, the inflow of foreign workers, etc. from around the 1980s. The paper examines three frameworks that try to incorporate such changes in education: (1) the human rights framework, (2) the internationalization framework, and (3) the multicultural coexistence framework. The paper analyzes who is included and excluded from such frameworks and the implications for a more inclusive understanding of diversity are suggested. Japon TSUNEYOSHI Ryoko, OKANO Kaori, BOOCOCK Sarane Spence, Minorities and education in multicultural Japan: an interactive perspective, Routledge/London; New York, 2011, 288 p. This volume examines how Japan’s increasingly multicultural population has impacted on the lives of minority children and their peers at school, and how schools are responding to this trend in terms of providing minority children with opportunities and preparing them for the adult society. The contributors focus on interactions between individuals and among groups representing diverse cultural backgrounds, and explore how such interactions are changing the landscape of education in increasingly multicultural Japan. Drawing on detailed micro-level studies of schooling, the chapters reveal the ways in which these individuals and groups (long-existing minority groups, newcomers, and the ‘mainstream Japanese’) interact, and the significant consequences of such interactions on learning at school and the system of education as a whole. Chine XIAO Yumin, MEIER Ellen B., « Education Technology as a Catalyst for Education Development in China: A Policy Perspective », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 15, décembre 2011, p. 313-343. Over the past 30 years, China has made dramatic changes and improvements in various educational areas, including the educational technology field. These changes have been supported by policies initiated by the country's central government. This chapter reviews the historical development of China's educational technology policies, paying particular attention to the evolutionary process, and examining policy features that have influenced Chinese educational development. The Chinese education technology framework encourages the use of educational technology to address more ambitious goals for economic and social development and thus serves as an important catalyst for advancing Chinese education. Hong-Kong WONG Yi Lin,SIU Kin Wai Michael, « Is there creativity in design? From a perspective of school o design and technology in Hong-Kong », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13 n 3, septembre 2012, p. 465-474. This paper analyzes the creative elements in the Design and Technology (D&T)curriculum in HongKong as seen in the exemplar projects on the Education Bureau website. Some problems and difficulties encountered in fostering creativity in the context of Hong-Kong are identified, based on the current teaching environment. The paper also draws attention to East Asian beliefs and implicit theories, which greatly influence teachers’ underlying assumptions about learning and teaching, and at the same time notes that these beliefs may be detrimental to the development of creativity among students. The paper then identifies the problems and inadequacies in fostering creativity in design at the secondary school level and expects to raise awareness of the importance of creativity in D&T. ZHU Yan, LEUNG Frederick Koon Shing, « Home work and mathematics achievement in Hong Kong :evidence from the TIMSS 2003 »,International journal of science and mathematics education, 2012, vol.10 N° 4, p. 907-925. Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10763-011-9302-3#page-2

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Though it is generally believed that doing homework promotes better learning, no consensus has been achieved concerning its importance and relevance to students’ achievement. The historical up-anddown status of public attitudes toward homework indicates that understanding about the role of homework in students’ learning is far from comprehensive and clear. The literature shows that much research effort has been devoted to the relationship between amount of homework and achievement, but little on quality of homework and how it has been used. Applying a 2-level hierarchical linear model on the TIMSS 2003 data, this study investigated the relationship between classroom practices on homework and 8th grade students’ mathematics achievement in Hong Kong in three dimensions: frequency and amount of homework, types of homework, and usage modes of homework.

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Atelier 3. Enjeux et modalités du financement de l’éducation en Asie Workshop 3. Issues and conditions associated with the funding of education in Asia Inde AGRAWAL Tushar, « Educational inequality in rural and urban India », International Journal of o Educational Development, vol. 34 n , janvier 2014, p. 11-19. This paper presents estimates of educational inequality for the major Indian states. We compute the education Gini index separately for the rural and urban sectors and examine the changes in inequality during past two decades. The estimates show the high extent of educational inequality; though the inequality declined between 1993 and 2009 the Gini index is above 50% in 2009. Using the analysis of Gini (ANOGI), a technique to decompose overall inequality into the inequality within- and betweensectors, we find that a large part of overall educational inequality is accounted for by intra-sector inequality. Further, intra-sector inequality has increased and inter-sector inequality has narrowed during the above period. Sri Lanka ARUNATILAKE Nisha, JAYAWARDENA Priyanka, « Formula funding and decentralized management of schools—Has it improved resource allocation in schools in Sri Lanka? », International Journal of o Educational Development, vol. 30 n 1, janvier 2010, p. 44-53. Using the experience of the Educational Quality Inputs (EQI) Scheme in Sri Lanka the paper examines the distributional aspects of formula-based funding and efficiency of decentralized management of education funds in a developing country setting. The study finds that the EQI fund distribution is largely pro-poor. However, results show that to reduce disparities allocated funds need to be fully utilized. The findings of the study supports the hypothesis that qualified principals, adequate levels of human and physical resources and state level monitoring and support are needed for the success of education management at the school level. Inde BAILY Supriya, « Framing the World Bank Education Strategy 2020 to the Indian Context: Alignments, Challenges, and Opportunities », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 16, mars 2012, p. 371-393. This chapter is a theoretical exploration of the relevance, challenges, and points of consideration to be taken into account as India prepares for the next stage of educational development. By providing context for the current challenges faced by India and aligning the framework of ESS2020 with government goals, this chapter seeks to inform the debate on ESS2020, especially in light of the significant gap in secondary education in India. Inde BANGAY Colin, LATHAM Michael, « Are we asking the right questions? Moving beyond the state vs non-state providers debate: Reflections and a Case Study from India », International Journal of o Educational Development, vol. 33 n 3, mai 2013, p. 244-252. This paper provides an overview of recent trends in basic education provision in India: charting an impressive expansion of enrolment in public schools but a growing concern with the quality of learning. Concerns around quality are seen as a driving factor in the migration of students from the public sector to low fee private schools. While there is evidence of improved learning amongst some low fee private schools there are also significant concerns around equity. The paper proposes that for the sake of future generations it is necessary to move beyond a polemical focus on state or non-state provision but rather to focus on six core questions about education provision: Is it sound pedagogically? Does it deliver meaningful learning? Is it equitable? Is it scalable? Is it financially viable and Is it sustainable? Vietnam CARR-HILL Roy A., « A large-scale donor attempt to improve educational status of the poor and household income distribution: The experience of PEDC in Vietnam », International Journal of o Educational Development, vol. 31 n 3, mai 2011, p. 251-261. In 2003, donors combined together in Vietnam to support the provision of quality primary schooling for

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226 disadvantaged districts (about a third of the country). US$160 million was invested in infrastructure, materials and training across the 226 districts. The programme has been commended by donors and received good press inside Vietnam. Comparison of achievement surveys in 2001 and 2007 showed, however, that there had been a decline in performance in the targeted districts. This article explores various hypotheses as to how this could have happened; and in particular the increasing amounts spent by better-off households on their children's education. Corée du Sud CHUN Hong-Min, MUNYI Elijah N., LEE Heejin, « South Korea as an emerging donor: Challenges and o changes on its entering OECD/DAC », Journal of International Development, vol. 22 n 6, août 2010, p. 788-802. South Korea's official development assistance (ODA) has been increasing rapidly and will continue to do so. Korea is one of the few countries which have successfully transitioned from a recipient to a donor. It became a member of DAC (development assistance committee), OECD in November 2009. Korea's ODA policy, along with its growth in quantity, is at a crossroads for the enhancement of its quality. Discussions and debates are going on regarding the reforms in Korea's ODA activities, and this paper examines key issues raised. It first reviews the past and present of Korea's ODA, and identifies major characteristics including a low ODA/GNI ratio, a high percentage of concessional loans compared to grants, a high portion of tied aid, regional bias and a relatively large number of recipients. Corée du Sud CHUNG Bong Gun, « The Korean model of ODA: A critical review of its concept and practices o reflected in educational ODA », Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 3 n 1, décembre 2013, p. 46-57. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the Korean ODA policy in terms of its context, actors, structures, and values so as to find how these characteristics are reflected in the education ODA of Korea. This study modifies and adopts the analytical framework of contingency, agency, structure, and ideology in historical sociology of education. Previous studies and documents of Korean Government are reviewed to find the relevance to the above analytical framework. This study has found that the characteristics of Korean ODA policy, such as economic orientation, are reflected in the education ODA practices. Inde COLCLOUGH Christopher, DE Anuradha, « The impact of aid on education policy in India », o International Journal of Educational Development The New Politics of Aid to Education, vol. 30 n 5, septembre 2010, p. 497-507. In the early 1990s, large numbers of children in India remained out of school. International commitments to achieve education for all (EFA) globally meant that India was an important case for donors. India was pressed to accept aid for primary education, and agreed with some reluctance. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial and influenced aspects of both policy implementation and management, it is shown that Indian education policy priorities remained selfdetermined. The Government of India – though falling short of securing universal education for its children – succeeded in using external resources and expertise in ways which suited its own purposes, whilst minimising external impact on policy development. The politics and economics of this process are discussed. Chine GONG Xin, TSANG Mun C., « Interprovincial and Regional Inequity in the Financing of Compulsory o Education in China », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 15 n , décembre 2011, p. 43-78. Based on government data from 1993 to 2008, this chapter aims to compute and analyze the trends of inequity in interprovincial and regional per-student spending in China's compulsory education, and to ascertain the potential impact of changes in education financing policies. […]. Main findings include: (1) all inequity measures show large and overall increased disparities among provinces and among regions, between 1993 and 2008. (2) However, a slight drop of spending inequity is observed at the primary education level around 2002 and a larger reduction in 2005 and on. There are more turning points in the trend of lower-secondary per-student spending among provinces. These patterns are consistent across different inequity measures and spending indicators (per-student total spending, per-

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student recurrent spending, and per-student nonpersonnel spending). (3) The trend toward more balanced resource allocation around 2002 and 2005 could be the impact from the Reform of Tax and Administrative Charges and the New Mechanism for Financing Rural Compulsory Education. HENAFF Nolwen, LANGE Marie-France (eds), « Inégalités scolaires au Sud », Autrepart, n° 59, septembre 2011, 205 p. Disponible sur : http://www.cairn.info/revue-autrepart-2011-3.htm Dans les pays du sud, le contexte éducatif s'est profondément modifié au cours des dernières décennies et les normes scolaires produites par les conférences et organisations internationales tendent à s'imposer. Partout ou presque, la scolarisation progresse mais les inégalités s'accroissent, se reproduisent ou se transforment et la question de l'accès tend à se déplacer de l'enseignement primaire à l'enseignement supérieur. Ce numéro propose d'analyser les inégalités éducatives à la fois du point de vue des politiques éducatives et de celui des stratégies familiales ou des groupes sociaux. Il cherche à prendre en compte les diverses expressions des inégalités face à l'éducation dans différents pays ou régions du Sud, et à tous les niveaux d'enseignement. Vietnam HENAFF Nolwen, « Financement de l'éducation au Viêt Nam : l'envers du décor », Revue internationale d'éducation de Sèvres, n° 65, avril 2014, p. 79-88. Le Viet Nam est souvent présenté comme un exemple de système éducatif conciliant qualité et faible coût. Alors que les résultats du pays à l’enquête PISA semblent attester de la qualité, la question du coût fait débat. L’État est souvent accusé de reporter la dépense éducative sur les parents, dont la participation aux dépenses éducatives ne cesse de s’accroître. Force de la demande d’éducation, faiblesse des salaires des personnels éducatifs et des dotations des écoles se conjuguent, entraînant le pays dans la spirale de la « maladie de la performance » et déjouant toutes ses tentatives pour s’en extraire. Dans ce contexte, c’est principalement à son extraordinaire capacité de mobilisation, dont la politique de « socialisation » de l’éducation est un puissant moteur, que le Viet Nam doit ses succès sur le plan éducatif. Corée du Sud JEONG Dong Wook, KIM Young-sik, HONG Ji-young, « The inequitable distribution of public education resources across schools: evidence from Korea », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. o 33 n 4, 2013, p. 394-406. A dearth of literature examines across-school disparities in education resources within local government agencies, particularly in Asia Pacific countries. Little is known about what leads to their inequitable distributions. In this article, we provide some answers by decomposing the inequalities of school resources. In Korea, individual schools make their own revenues from three different sources: local education government agencies (LEA), municipalities, and their parents. Following the economic literature on income inequality, we explored how much each revenue source is attributable to overall disparities. Our results reveal that the LEAs are the greatest contributor to horizontal inequality while parents are the main source of vertical inequality. […]. Pakistan KAYANI Nadeem, « Les enjeux de la décentralisation : le financement de l'éducation au Pakistan », Revue internationale d'éducation de Sèvres, n° 65, avril 2014, p. 99-109. Le Pakistan est confronté au défi d’assurer l’éducation de sa population. Ce défi est devenu urgent, avec l’introduction de changements constitutionnels prévoyant un enseignement obligatoire pour tous, de 5 à 16 ans. La génération de ressources, les transferts financiers, les enveloppes budgétaires et les dépenses publiques du secteur de l’éducation sont les différentes pierres d’achoppement qui empêchent de disposer d’une meilleure offre éducative dans le secteur public. Alors que se met en place une tendance à la gouvernance et à la gestion financière tout à la fois décentralisées et déléguées, les provinces sont incitées à financer cet effort et à dépenser davantage pour offrir un meilleur service éducatif au niveau local. Augmenter le rôle du secteur privé et la prise de décision par les parties prenantes pourra contribuer à résoudre les problèmes auxquels le secteur éducatif est confronté.

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Chine KING Kenneth, « China's cooperation in education and training with Kenya: A different model? », o International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 30 n 5, septembre 2010, p. 488-496. This is the first detailed study of the character and particularity of China's rapidly growing education and training cooperation with Kenya. Set against the 50-year history of Kenya's engagement with China, it pays special attention to the human resources targets of the Forum for China–Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) from 2000. It argues that the growing popularity of China as a destination for both short- and long-term training for Kenyans, and the increasing interest by Kenyans in learning Chinese, cannot be separated from the wider involvement of China in Kenya's infrastructure development, the growth of Chinese business and foreign direct investment, and Chinese migration to East Africa. Vietnam LANGE Marie-France, HENAFF Nolwen, « Accès à l’éducation et pauvreté au Viêt-nam », in Akkari A et Payet J-P., « Transformations des systèmes éducatifs dans les pays du Sud. Entre globalisation et diversification », Raisons éducatives, 2010, p. 249-277. LEWIN Keith M., LITTLE Angela W. « Access to Education Revisited: Equity, Drop out and Transitions to Secondary School in South Asia and Sub Saharan Africa », International Journal of Educational o Development, vol. 31 n 4, mai 2011, p. 333-337. Inde LEWIN Keith M., « Expanding access to secondary education: Can India catch up? », International o Journal of Educational Development, vol. 31 n 4, mai 2011, p. 382-393. In the last decade the national Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) programme has focussed on universaling access to elementary education (Grades I–VIII). Most recently the Right to Education Act provides the legislative framework to guarantee schooling to all children between 6 and 14 years of age. It remains the case however that less than half of all children attend and complete secondary school especially in the Northern states. Under the 11th National Plan Rastriya Madhyamic Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) has been launched to increase the numbers entering secondary school. This paper explores some of the key issues in planning and managing the growth in participation that is envisaged so that 75% or more enjoy the benefits of transition to Grades IX and X. LEWIN Keith M., Making Rights Realities: Researching Educational Access, Transitions and Equity. Research Report of the Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity. University of Sussex/Brighton, 2011, 78 p. Retrieved from : http://www.create-rpc.org/pdf_documents/Making-Rights-Realities-Keith-Lewin-September-2011.pdf Chine - Shanghai LIN Tingjin, The politics of financing education in China, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 208 p. China's education, as its economy and society, is in a period of transition. Since the foundation of the People's Republic, education has undergone significant changes and education policy has shifted gears from being mainly politically-oriented to modernizing the country. However, unevenly financed compulsory education creates disparities in per student spending, especially in disadvantaged, rural areas. In the first political discussion of intra-provincial Chinese education policy, Tingjin Lin explores the inequalities of education in China. Looking at both education policy and personnel policy, the author also shows that educators and provincial leaders are often torn between self-interest and implementing reforms and equal opportunities which may impede the progress of their own careers. Inde, Pakistan, Vietnam MACPHERSON Ian Susan, ROBERTSON Susan, WALFORD Geoffrey, Education privatisation and social justice: case studies from Africa, South Asia and South East Asia,Oxford studies in comparative education, Symposium Books/Oxford, 2014, 312 p. The involvement of private actors in education is not new yet in the last decade critical issues have arisen that demand close scrutiny. This volume explores emerging forms of the private through case studies from Africa, South Asia and South East Asia and makes three related observations. First, what is new about these manifestations is their scale, scope and penetration into almost all aspects of the

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education endeavour – from the administrative apparatus to policymaking, and from formal provision in education settings to out-of-school activities, such as private tutoring. Second, what is particularly controversial about these developments is how education itself is being recast; as a sector it is increasingly being opened up to profit-making and trade, and to agenda-setting by private, commercial interests. Third, the learner is increasingly conceptualised as a consumer, and education a consumer good. […] Inde MEHROTRA Santosh, « The cost and financing of the right to education in India: Can we fill the o financing gap? », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 32 n 1, janvier 2012, p. 65-71. India's Parliament passed the Right to Education Act in 2009, which entitles all children 6–14 years old to at least eight years of schooling. This paper examines the cost of achieving this right to education, and asks whether India can fill the financing gap that must be filled if the right is to be realized. The paper notes the very considerable increase in central and state government allocation implied by the Act, and finds that there will be difficulties in finding the resources, given the large fiscal deficit occasioned by the global economic crisis. However, the paper goes on to suggest a series of measures that can be taken so that the right to schooling is no more denied or delayed. Chine NORDTVEIT Bjørn H., « An emerging donor in education and development: A case study of China in Cameroon », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 31 no 2, mars 2011, p. 99108. This paper analyzes China's new approaches of education aid to Africa through a case study of Cameroon. China's cooperation has been characterized by different discourses and different historic relationships with recipient countries than those of traditional donors. Sino-African policies have gone through different stages, each connected to wider political and economic realities. Currently, a broadening of China's engagement with Africa can be noticed through increasing aid packages and the inclusion of African countries other than those that had traditionally been close to China. Cameroon has been one of the countries that have had a relatively extended cooperation with China. […] NORONHA Claire, SRIVASTAVA Prachi, « Institutional Framing of the Right to Education Act: contestation, controversy, and concessions », Economic and Political Weekly, mai 2014, vol. 49 n° 18, p. 51-58. This paper presents results from a larger household-, school-, and institutional-level study on the role of the private sector and the early phase of implementation of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009. While some of the controversies about the RTE Act were reported in the media and publicly discussed, this paper reports data from semi-structured interviews with key education officials and implementers, some of whom were responsible for drafting the Act, and traces successive iterations of draft bills. The paper exposes contestation, controversy and concessions that were made in policy backrooms throughout the processes framing the Act. Inde NORONHA Claire, SRIVASTAVA Prachi, India’s right to education act: household experiences and private school responses, Education Support Program Working Paper Series 2013, n° 53, PERI, Open Society Foundation, 52 p. Retrieved from: http://www.periglobal.org/sites/periglobal.org/files/WP-No53-01-21-2014-FINAL.pdf Chine NIU Changsong, « China's educational cooperation with Africa: toward new strategic partnerships », o Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 3 n 1, décembre 2013, p. 31-45. Based on empirical and documentary analysis, the paper describes and explores the unique features of China-Africa educational cooperation. In the past decades, China's expanding engagement with Africa in the field of international development assistance has attracted great attention and given rise to mixed reactions and arguments at the international level. China's cooperation with Africa has a long and notable history, dating back to the 1950s. China's cooperation with other developing countries is

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known as South-South development cooperation, based on principles of equality, mutual benefit, solidarity and no conditionality. […] Vietnam POATE Derek, DANG Ngoc Dung, NGUYEN H., Country-led evaluation of the Delivering as One UN pilot initiative in Viet Nam, Final Report, Hanoi, mai 2010, 147 p. Retrieved from: http://www.undg.org/docs/11328/CLE-DaO-Viet-Nam-Final-Report-May-2010.pdf This report presents an evaluation of the “One UN Initiative” in Viet Nam, which started in February 2006. Initially it focused on five pillars of UN reform: One Plan, One Budget, One Leader, One Set of Management Practices and One Green UN House. Vietnam later added One Voice. The evaluation tries to go beyond scrutiny of process and seek verifiable evidence of progress towards effectiveness. […] Indonésie SENSENIG Victor J., « The World Bank and Educational Reform in Indonesia », International o Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 16 n , mars 2012, p. 395-421. This chapter examines World Bank publications, including publicized reports and widely disseminated policy statements like the World Development Reports, as well as the plans and appraisals of two specific operations in Indonesia. Based on this examination, the author suggests that characterizations which emphasize the Bank's intransigence or celebrate its responsiveness fail to provide a satisfactory description of country-level education policy evolution. The chapter begins with two of the major theoretical frameworks that have been used to study the Bank's work in education. This is followed by a summary of the evolution of the Bank's involvement in education at the international level. The third part of this chapter analyzes two educational reforms that the World Bank has promoted in Indonesia in the last 10 years – programs advancing vocational education and decentralization – and examines how these priorities have been affected by local context and demands and shifts in the global discourse on education. Inde, Pakistan SRIVASTAVA Prachi, Low-fee private schooling: aggravating equity or mitigating disadvantage?, Oxford studies in comparative education, Symposium books/Oxford, 2013, 220 p. Low-fee private schooling represents a point of heated debate in the international policy context of Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals. While on the one hand there is an increased push for free and universal access with assumed State responsibility, reports on the mushrooming of private schools targeting socially and economically disadvantaged groups in a range of developing countries, particularly across Africa and Asia, have emerged over the last decade. […].The book presents research findings from studies across three levels of analysis that have proven relevant in the study of low-fee private schooling: the household, school and state. Chapters address household schooling choice behaviours regarding low-fee private and competing sectors; the management, operation and relative quality of low-fee private schools; and changes to the regulatory frameworks governing low-fee private schools, and the impact of low-fee private schools on those frameworks. […] SRIVASTAVA Prachi, NORONHA Claire, « Institutional Framing of the Right to Education Act: contestation, controversy, and concessions », Economic and Political Weekly, mai 2014, vol. 49 n° 18, pp. 51-58. This paper presents results from a larger household-, school-, and institutional-level study on the role of the private sector and the early phase of implementation of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009. While some of the controversies about the RTE Act were reported in the media and publicly discussed, this paper reports data from semi-structured interviews with key education officials and implementers, some of whom were responsible for drafting the Act, and traces successive iterations of draft bills. The paper exposes contestation, controversy and concessions that were made in policy backrooms throughout the processes framing the Act.

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Inde TILAK Jandhyala, « South-South Cooperation: India's programme of development assistance – nature, o size and functioning », Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 3 n 1, décembre 2013, p. 58-75 India is described as an emerging donor. Actually India has started providing development assistance to developing countries immediately after independence. The amount of aid was relatively small, but grew over the years to a recognisable size. The purpose of this paper is to review the long experience of India in the framework of development assistance which is laid in the foundational principles of South-South Development Cooperation (SSDC). Based on secondary data, the paper provides an exhaustive account of India's programme of development assistance, and a critical discussion of issues involved. Chine, Corée du Sud, Inde, Japon YAMADA Shoko, « Introduction: positions of Asian donors in the aid discourse toward post-2015 », o Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 3 n 1, décembre 2013, p. 2-10. This purpose of this paper is to provide the context in which this special issue is published. This special issue highlights the matters related to the Asian countries which provide assistance to developing countries for their advancement of education. There are an increasing number of donor countries which are formerly recipients of development assistance. Their emergence as donors is changing the landscape of international educational development. Being outside of the self-regulating community of traditional donors, they bring different logics and motivations to this field that often go beyond the frame of meaning making among traditional donors. Asia-Pacific region is unique in the sense that it has both traditional and new types of donors. The former group includes Japan and the USA, while the latter has Korea, China, India, and many others. Japon YAMADA Shoko, « Japanese educational aid in transition: between the aid coordination and unique o model », Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 3 n 1, décembre 2013, p. 76-94. The purpose of this paper is to untangle the domestic and international factors that have affected policy making and implementation of the Japanese Overseas Development Assistance (ODA), particularly in education, at different times in its history. Japan was the first non-western Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development-Development Assistance Committee (OECD-DAC) member and has always been in the ambivalent position of being both a DAC member and an Asian latecomer. As the Education for All paradigm took the ground, Japanese ODA to the education sector has shifted to the primary education from Technical and Vocational Education and Training and higher education from the mid-1990s until the mid-2000s. While the global trend is clear in Japanese ODA, it has always stressed the importance of establishing and demonstrating the “Japanese model” in ODA policy documents and practices. […] Indonésie YAMAUCHI Futoshi, MUTO Megumi, CHOWDHURY Shyamal, DEWINA Reno, SUMARYANTO Sony, « Are Schooling and Roads Complementary? Evidence from Income Dynamics in Rural Indonesia », o World Development, vol. 39 n 12, décembre 2011, p. 2232-2244. We examine the impact of spatial connectivity on household income growth and non-agriculture labor supply in Indonesia by combining household panel data and village census data during the period of 1995–2007. Our empirical results show that the impacts of improved local road quality on income growth and the transition to non-agricultural labor markets depend on household education and distance to economic centers. In particular, post-primary education significantly increases the benefit from the improvement of local spatial connectivity in remote areas, promoting labor transition to nonagricultural sectors. Education and local road quality are complementary, mutually increasing nonagricultural labor supply and income in remote areas. In contrast, the initial landholding size does not affect the benefit from improved road quality.

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Atelier 4. Évolution des organisations scolaires face aux mutations socioéconomiques Workshop 4. Changes in school education systems as a result of socioeconomic transformations Corée du Sud BYUN Soo-yong, KIM Kyung-keun, « Educational inequality in South Korea: The widening socioeconomic gap in student achievement » In Hannum Emily, Hyunjoon Park, Yuko Goto Butler (ed.) Globalization, Changing Demographics, and Educational Challenges in East Asia, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2010, p. 155-182. Increasing income inequality particularly since the economic crisis of 1997 has called attention to the issue of growing educational inequality in South Korea. […]. Using nationally representative data for the most recent three cohorts (1999, 2003, and 2007) of eighth-grade South Korean students from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), this study examines trends in the relationship between socioeconomic background and student achievement. The eighth-grade TIMSS data demonstrate that the influence of socioeconomic background on student achievement has increased over time during the past decade, offering evidence of growing educational inequality in South Korea. Various factors may contribute to higher educational inequality, including the widening income gap and recent educational transformations geared toward school choice and tracking. Corée du Sud CHA Yun-Kyung, HAM Seung-Hwan, « Constructivist teaching and intra-school collaboration among teachers in South Korea: an uncertainty management perspective », Asia Pacific Education Review, o vol. 13 n 4, décembre 2012, p. 635-647. In an effort to understand how collaborative teacher interaction is contingent upon teacher characteristics and school-organizational contexts, this study conducts a series of hierarchical generalized linear modeling analyses based on a nationally representative sample of about 2,500 teachers across 149 middle schools in South Korea. The data are from the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey 2008. The result from this study suggests that teacher collegiality may be understood largely as teachers’ collective effort to deal with uncertainties that arise from their approach to teaching as a constructivist endeavor to engage students in meaningful inquiry-based learning. This result is very robust as it holds after a range of other factors such as principal instructional leadership and teacher efficacy are simultaneously taken into account. Chine CHEN Junjun, « Chinese middle school teacher job satisfaction and its relationships with teacher o moving », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 11 n 3, septembre 2010, p. 263-272. This study examined teacher job satisfaction in Chinese middle schools from the aspects of school, community, and life and the relationships between these factors and teacher moving. A convenience sample of 294 teachers was approached through a 35-item questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Three major results were found: (1) Chinese middle school teachers were dissatisfied with their job in general. (2) Younger, less-experienced, junior teachers were more satisfied. Most groups of teachers were more satisfied with their working conditions, but less satisfied with income. (3) The subfactors of leadership, professional opportunities, working conditions, and income had significant relationships with teachers’ future career planning. Chine CHEN Xinxin, YI Hongmei, ZHANG Linxiu, MO Di, CHU James, « Do poor students benefit from China's Merger Program? Transfer path and educational performance », Asia Pacific Journal of o Education, vol. 34 n 1, 2014, p. 15-35. Aiming to provide better education facilities and improve the educational attainment of poor rural students, China's government has been merging remote rural primary schools into centralized village, town, or county schools since the late 1990s. To accompany the policy, boarding facilities have been constructed that allow (mandate) primary school-aged children to live at school rather than at home. More generally, there also have been efforts to improve rural schools, especially those in counties and towns. […] Drawing on a unique dataset that records both the path by which students navigate their

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primary school years as well as math test scores in three poverty-stricken counties, we use descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis […] to analyse the relationship between different transfer paths and student educational performance. Chine CHEN Xinxin, LIU Chengfang, ZHANG Linxiu, SHI Yaojiang, ROZELLE Scott, « Does taking one step back get you two steps forward? Grade retention and school performance in poor areas in rural o China », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 30 n 6, novembre 2010, p. 544559. Despite the rise in grade retention in poor areas in rural China recently, little work has been done to understand the impact of grade retention on the educational performance of students in these areas in rural China. This paper seeks to redress this shortcoming and examines the effect of grade retention on educational performance on 1649 students in 36 elementary schools in Shaanxi province. […] Although the descriptive analysis shows that grade retention helps to improve the scores of the students that were retained, somewhat surprisingly, the results from the multivariate analysis consistently show that there is no significant positive effect of grade retention on school performance of the students. In fact, in some cases (e.g., for the students who repeat grade 2), grade retention is shown to hurt school performance. Chine CHEN Wei, LI Qin, « La littérature à l’école en Chine », Revue internationale d'éducation de o Sèvres, n 61, décembre 2012, p. 47-58. L’article présente la nature, l’objectif et le statut du cours de « yuwen » à l’école chinoise, où est assuré l’enseignement de la langue, de la littérature et des cultures chinoises. Il montre son importance dans le dispositif général de formation et son inscription dans un projet humaniste. Analysant des manuels utilisés dans la province de Shanghaï et l’articulation entre textes anciens, plus récents, voire traduits, les auteurs concluent à l’équilibre d’ensemble du yuwen tout en observant la montée de formes de réticences chez certains élèves. Chine CHENG Henan, « Educational Barriers for Migrant Children in China: A Mixed-Method Analysis Focused on Ethnic Minorities », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 15, décembre 2011, p. 267-312. Using Kunming, the capital of China's southwest Yunnan Province, as an example, this mixedmethods research examines three interacting dimensions of social change in contemporary China: migration, ethnicity, and education. In particular, it sheds light on the issue of educational achievement of migrant children, especially children of ethnic minority background. […] The qualitative and quantitative results highlight four interrelated groups of educational barriers experienced by migrant students in pursuing compulsory education: institutional, socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological barriers. In particular, cultural and psychological barriers, including difficulty in school adaptation, low self-esteem, lack of family support, and discrimination against ethnic minorities due to their different religious beliefs and ethnic traditions, are found to have exerted particularly significant negative influences on academic achievements of ethnic minority students. Laos CHOUNLAMANY Kongsy, KHOUNPHILAPHANH Bounchanh, Umeå universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen, New methods of teaching? reforming education in Lao PDR, Department of Education, Umeå university/Umeå, 2011. Chine CHUNG Carol, MASON Mark, « Why do primary school students drop out in poor, rural China? A portrait sketched in a remote mountain village », International Journal of Educational o Development, vol. 32 n 4, juillet 2012, p. 537-545. In this paper we consider why students in poor and rural regions of China are dropping out of school in numbers that may be greater than official statistics admit. […], we sketch a portrait of education in a remote mountain village community as it might be painted from the perspective of a primary school dropout: a portrait in which education quality is well in the shadows. We indicate the limits of the view that commonly relates the phenomenon of school dropout primarily with poverty, a lack of school resources and inequities in resource distribution, suggesting that the picture is more nuanced and

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subtly shaded at local levels. Our research indicates that the education system in the radically transitional society that China is today brings with it values that clash with those of its citizens, particularly those who are marginalized and cannot easily adjust, perhaps because of their disadvantaged socio-economic, cultural and geographic location. […] Laos CINCOTTA‐SEGI Angela, « Talking in, talking around and talking about the L2: three literacy teaching responses to L2 medium of instruction in the Lao PDR », Compare: A Journal of Comparative and o International Education, vol. 41 n 2, 2011, p. 195-209.

With speakers of over one hundred languages, the Lao PDR is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse nations in Southeast Asia. However, its education policy stipulates that Lao is the language of education at all levels of schooling. Non ‐ethnic Lao stu literacy in a language which they do not speak. Within this context, teachers must find ways to balance policy constraints with the needs of their students and with their own beliefs and values around language use. This paper examines talk around reading texts in three ethnic minority primary school classrooms in Laos. It demonstrates that the Lao language ‐in‐ education multiplicity of literacy teaching responses ranging from almost exclusive use of Lao, through combined use of Lao and the mother tongue, to – surprisingly – almost exclusive use of the mother tongue to teach officially prescribed Lao texts. Chine DING Meixia, LI Yeping, LI Xiaobao, KULM Gerald, « Chinese teachers' attributions and coping o strategies for student classroom misbehaviour », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 30 n 3, 2010, p. 321-337. In this study, we investigated Chinese teachers' attributions and coping strategies for classroom misbehaviour across grade levels. A total of 244 teachers (Grades 1–12) from the Chinese mainland participated in this survey. Results indicated that Chinese teachers first attributed misbehaviour to student characteristics, such as being “lazy, not making enough effort”, and second to “bad learning habits”. Looking across grade levels, elementary teachers first blamed student learning habits while secondary teachers blamed student effort. With regard to coping strategies, inconsistencies were found across grade levels and between teachers' perceptions and actions. […]. DRAELANTS Hugues, RAVEAUD Maroussia « Ethnographies of education in the French-speaking world ». In ANDERSON-LEVITT Kathryn (dir.) Mapping Anthropologies of Education. A Global Guide to Ethnographic Studies of Learning and Schooling. New York, Berghahn Books, 2011. Sri Lanka EGODAWATTE Gunawardena, « An analysis of the competency-based secondary mathematics o curriculum in Sri Lanka », Educational Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 13 n 1, février 2014, p. 45-63. In education, there is a growing interest in the concept of competency especially in vocational training and professional development. The concept is strongly associated with the ability to apply knowledge and skills in effective ways in unanticipated situations. In Sri Lanka, a new competency-based mathematics curriculum was introduced in 2007 for grade 6 and the implementation was completed in 2010 for grade 11 as part of a reform process. The main aim of this implementation was to eliminate previous transmission methods of teaching and to assign a transformational role to the teacher. [...] Sri Lanka GAMLATH Sharmila, « “Freeing” free education in Sri Lanka », Asian Education and Development o Studies, vol. 2 n 1, janvier 2013, p. 34-52. The research aims to describe Sri Lanka's education system, discuss reforms that have been implemented within the school, university and vocational education sectors in the recent past and suggest potentially fruitful reforms whilst identifying the various constraints which can affect their implementation. The research shows the need for considerable reform of Sri Lanka's education system, especially with regard to improving the quality of state education and encouraging greater private sector participation.

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GAUTHIER Pierre-Louis, LUGINBÜHL Odile, « L’éducation en milieu rural : perceptions et réalités », Revue internationale d'éducation Sèvres, avril 2012, n° 59, p. 35-42. Disponible sur : http://ries.revues.org/2226 GOOSSAERT Vincent, « Détruire les temples pour construire les écoles : reconstitution d’un objet historique », Extrême-Orient Extrême-Occident, janvier 2011, n° 33, p. 35-51. Disponible sur : http://www.cairn.info/revue-extreme-orient-extreme-occident-2011-1-page-35.htm « Construire les écoles avec les biens des temples », miaochan banxue, voilà un objet historique curieux. L’expression désigne un ensemble d’idées et de pratiques, liées tant à l’introduction d’un système éducatif moderne en Chine au début du XXe siècle qu’à des campagnes de réforme religieuse d’inspiration très diverse. L’article fait le point sur l’historiographie du miaochan banxue et propose de l’analyser globalement sous quatre perspectives différentes : comme processus politique, partie importante des réformes visant à moderniser l’État et la société chinoise ; comme moteur du changement socio-religieux, en évaluant son impact sur la vie des villages et des quartiers ; comme expérience des acteurs historiques, en essayant de comprendre les motivations et les effets des participants ; enfin comme objet intellectuel chez les historiens. Chine GUO Shibao, GUO Yan, BECKETT Gulbahar, LI Qing, GUO Linyuan, « Changes in Chinese education under globalisation and market economy: emerging issues and debates », Compare: A o Journal of Comparative and International Education, vol. 43 n 2, 2013, p. 244-264. Fuelled by forces of globalisation, China has gradually shifted from a centrally planned economy to the ‘socialist market economy’. This study examines changes in Chinese education under globalisation and market economy, focusing on the teaching and living conditions of teachers. The study reveals that the profound transformation of social and economic life has resulted in significant changes to education in China, as manifested in curriculum reform, increased disparity between rural and urban education, marginalisation of minority education and lack of accessible and affordable education for the children of migrant workers. The recent changes have also had tremendous impact on teachers in terms of their workload, payment, wellbeing, social status and teaching and living conditions. […]. Corée du Sud HA Bong-Woon, SUNG Youl-Kwan, « Teacher reactions to the performance-based bonus program: how the expectancy theory works in the South Korean school culture », Asia Pacific Education o Review, vol. 12 n 1, mars 2011, p. 129-141. This study was conducted in order to examine how and to what extent the implementation of the performance-based bonus program in South Korean schools has motivated teachers to improve their behavior, as well as to identify any other positive or negative effects of the program. Interviews with teachers indicated that a large percentage of teachers did not have a clear understanding of the evaluation system and did not feel that the evaluation standards were indicative of good teaching practice or that the evaluators were sufficiently experienced to conduct the evaluations. As a result, teachers generally had negative opinions regarding the program and did not support its continuation. […]. Therefore, most teachers stated that the program was not motivating them to improve their instructional performance. Further, schools’ cultural factors such as seniority, the traditional concept of Sesheng, and mistrust of job security turn out to not facilitate the original intention of the policy. Chine, Corée du Sud, Japon, Hong-Kong, Singapour HANNUM Emily, PARK Hyunjoon, BUTLER Yuko Goto (ed.) Globalization, Changing Demographics, and Educational Challenges in East Asia, Emerald Group Publishing Limited/Bingley, 2010, 352 p. In recent decades, globalization and regional integration have brought significant economic and demographic changes in East Asia, including rising economic inequality, growing population movements within and across borders, and the emergence or renewed geopolitical significance of cultural and linguistic minority populations. These trends have coincided with significant changes in family formation, dissolution, and structures. How have these changes played out in the diverse educational systems of East Asia? In what innovative ways are East Asian governments addressing the new demographic realities of their student populations? This volume offers a snapshot of key educational stratification issues in East Asian nations, and their evolution in conjunction with changing student populations. […]

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Chine HANNUM Emily, LIU Jihong, FRONGILLO Edward A., « Poverty, food insecurity and nutritional deprivation in rural China: Implications for children's literacy achievement », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 34, janvier 2014, p. 90-97. Globally, food insecurity is a significant contextual aspect of childhood. About 850 million people were undernourished worldwide during the period 2006–2008, including 129.6 million people, or 10 percent of the population, in China (FAO, 2011, pp. 45–46). Implications of food insecurity for children's schooling in developing country contexts are poorly understood. Analyses of a survey of children from 100 villages in northwest China show that long-term undernourishment and food insecurity strike the poorest disproportionately, but not exclusively; long-term undernourishment matters for literacy via early achievement; and, after adjusting for socioeconomic status, long-term undernourishment, and prior achievement, food insecure children have significantly lower literacy scores. Chine HE An E, « Educational decentralization: a review of popular discourse on Chinese–English bilingual o education », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 31 n 1, 2011, p. 91-105. Educational decentralization is a worldwide phenomenon, which takes different forms and leads to different outcomes in different socio-economic contexts. Taking Chinese–English bilingual education in Mainland China as an exemplar, this study examines how the decentralization of education has worked in China in the past two decades, and what consequences decentralization has brought about in the country. The analysis reveals that decentralization has created a favourable overall socioeconomic and political context for bilingual education to develop, from a local endeavour into a nationwide undertaking. The analysis also reveals that decentralization has allowed the diversified operation of bilingual programmes at the regional level. However, there has been a visible inconsistency and incoherence between the theoretical underpinnings of the programmes and the practice in schools and classrooms. […] Inde HIGHAM Rob, SHAH Alpa, « Conservative force or contradictory resource? Education and affirmative action in Jharkhand, India », Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, o vol. 43 n 6, 2013, p. 718-739. This article explores the combination of education and affirmative action in challenging historic inequalities faced by adivasis, or indigenous peoples, living in a remote region of Eastern India. We show how the combined effects of education and affirmative action can act as a ‘contradictory resource’. On the one hand, policies of affirmative action are enabling young educated adivasis – the children of subsistence farmers and manual labourers – to benefit from the creation of new, rural state jobs. We show how without affirmative action, such jobs may well have been monopolised by a local elite of higher castes. On the other hand, we argue several conservative processes have accompanied these changes. […] This ‘culture of emulation’ is fostering new inequalities between educated adivasis and their poorer kin, who face increasing proletarianisation. The contradictory resource, we argue, concerns not only inequalities in accessing certain jobs, but also the creation of new forms of differentiation among historically marginalised people. We conclude by setting these findings within the wider complex relations emerging between caste, ethnicity and class in contemporary India. Corée du Sud HONG Won-Pyo, « Multicultural education in Korea: its development, remaining issues, and global o implications », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 11 n 3, septembre 2010, p. 387-395. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the origin and evolution of multicultural education in Korea, remaining issues, and global implications that the Korean case may provide to educators in other contexts, especially to those in Asia–Pacific countries. To address these topics, this paper analyzes government documents, various survey data, and research literature related to historical, theoretical, and practical aspects of multicultural education in Korea. Major findings show that, despite substantial achievements in a short period of time, significant structural barriers against minority groups still remain, while an assimilationist approach tends to dominate multicultural education in Korea. […]

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Chine HU Feng, « Migration, remittances, and children's high school attendance: The case of rural China », o International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 32 n 3, mai 2012, p. 401-411. This paper uses a large nationally representative survey data to examine the impact of China's rural– urban migration on high school attendance of left-behind children by disentangling the effect of remittances from that of migration. The results show that the absence of adult household members has a negative impact on the high school attendance of left-behind children in rural areas, while the remittances can partially compensate for this loss. The effects are especially prominent for girls and those children from poor households since girls are usually disadvantaged in rural China and poor households are more likely to be liquidity-constrained. Chine HUANG Tiédan, WISEMAN Alexander W. (eds), The impact and transformation of education policy in China, Emerald group Publishing Limited/Bingley, 2011, vol.15, 406 p. This volume examines the transformation of education policy in China, with a special emphasis on transformations in the post-1978 period. […] With the special emphasis on policy change and its subsequent impact on different aspects of education at various levels of educational institutions, particularly in areas of educational financing and curriculum reform, this volume attempts to bridge the dichotomy between critics and advocates of Chinese educational transformations, recognize the importance and impact that educational policy in China has not only on one of the largest national populations in the world, but also on other (and often competing) countries' systems and provide relevant scholarship to inform policy and practice. Corée du Sud KANG Nam-Hwa, « Teacher Evaluation Policy Development in South Korea », International o Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 19 n , mars 2013, p. 147-177. Purpose – The purpose of the research was to examine the process of new teacher evaluation policy development in South Korea, in order to gain insight into how a controversial policy could be established in education. Research questions were about the process of the policy development, political actors involved and their influences, and the meaning of teacher evaluation in the newly established teacher evaluation policy. […] Chine, Hong Kong, Indonésie, Japon, Pakistan, Singapour, Taïwan KENNEDY Kerry J., LEE Wing. On, GROSSMAN David L., Citizenship pedagogies in Asia and the Pacific, Springer/Dordrecht,New York, 2011, 424 p. How are students in Asia and the Pacific taught to be effective citizens? This volume focuses on citizenship pedagogies that are promoted by governments in the region, advocated by scholars, and adapted in the schools and classrooms where citizenship education takes place every day. Thirteen case studies from diverse societies in Asia and the Pacific highlight the ways in which teachers and students think about, experience or plan for citizenship teaching and learning. Different methods – vignettes, student surveys, case studies and literature reviews – are used to portray these experiences, from both macro- and micro-analytic perspectives. Corée du Sud KIM Kwanyoung, PARK Jimin, SONG Chanhoo « L’impact des TICE sur la formation des enseignants en Corée », Revue internationale d’éducation de Sèvres, décembre 2010, n° 55, p.141-150. Disponible sur : http://ries.revues.org/986 Depuis la fin des années 90, la Corée a entrepris d'améliorer la qualité de l'enseignement en promouvant l'utilisation des TICE, vues comme donnant aux enseignants la possibilité d'améliorer leur maîtrise de l'information. À mesure que les technologies progressaient, la formation des enseignants s'est transformée pour adapter les nouvelles technologies à la situation de classe et pour développer les aptitudes des enseignants. Le "Plan TICE", depuis 2002, s'adresse à plus de 30 % des enseignants, ainsi qu'aux chefs d'établissements et autres personnels d'éducation. Les nouveaux programmes de formation aux TICE prennent en compte toute la durée de la carrière des enseignants et les nouvelles technologies.

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Corée du Sud KIM Kyung-Nyun, OH Se-Hee, « Effects of social constraints on career maturity: the mediating effect o of the time perspective », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 14 n 2, juin 2013, p. 221-229. Previous studies have provided mixed results for the effects of social constraints on career maturity. However, there has been growing interest in these effects from the time perspective. Few studies have examined the effects of social constraints on the time perspective which in turn influences career maturity. This study examines the mediating effect of the present-oriented perspective on the relation between social constraints and career maturity. The results based on a panel survey of middle and high school students in Korea indicate that the time perspective mediates the relation between socioeconomic status (SES) and career maturity regardless of the level of academic achievement. The results have important implications for intervention programs for low-SES children’s time perspective, which may mitigate the transmission of social constraints, thereby raising the bar for their academic and career goals: Such programs may be useful for enhancing low-SES children’s career readiness. Chine KIM Sungwon, FONG Vanessa L., « How parents help children with homework in China: Narratives o across the life span », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 14 n 4, décembre 2013, p. 581-592. This study examines how ten young adults in Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China, perceived how their parents helped them with homework during their childhood and adolescence. […]. Parents’ lack of ability to directly assist their children in their schoolwork at home (and thus promote their children’s skills) was compensated for by involvement strategies that often tapped into their children’s motivation. Our study illustrated how several strategies that have not been reported in the Western scholarship on parental involvement (i.e., reasoning about the importance of education, watching children study, and offering food, criticizing, and blaming) can map onto the skill and motivation development model Western researchers have developed, while highlighting the previously understudied salience of these particular strategies, especially for parents who do not have enough education to teach the skills their children need for upward mobility. Inde LADOUSA Chaise, Hindi is our ground, English is our sky: Education, language, and social class in contemporary India, Berghahn books/New York, 2014, 215 p. A sea change has occurred in the Indian economy in the last three decades, spurring the desire to learn English. Most scholars and media venues have focused on English exclusively for its ties to processes of globalization and the rise of new employment opportunities. The pursuit of class mobility, however, involves Hindi as much as English in the vast Hindi-Belt of northern India. Schools are institutions on which class mobility depends, and they are divided by Hindi and English in the rubric of “medium,” the primary language of pedagogy. This book demonstrates that the school division allows for different visions of what it means to belong to the nation and what is central and peripheral in the nation. It also shows how the language-medium division reverberates unevenly and unequally through the nation, and that schools illustrate the tensions brought on by economic liberalization and middleclass status. Corée du Sud LEE Chong Jae , KIM Yong , BYUN Soo-yong, « The rise of korean education from the ashes of the korean war », Prospects, septembre 2012, vol. XLII - n° 3, n° 163, p. 303-318. Over the past few decades, South Korea has made remarkable achievements in education despite many obstacles. Education, in turn, has played an important role in Korea's achieving both economic development and political democracy. This article examines how South Korea expanded access to education and improved its quality.The article also identifies several tasks Korean education faces in the context of the new challengfes of globalization and social polarization, and some of the broader policy implications that the Korean model of educational development has beyond Chine LIU Jing, JACOB W. James, « From access to quality: migrant children’s education in urban China », Educational Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 12 no 3, octobre 2013, p. 177-191. An increasing number of migrant children are involved in public education due largely to the policy for migrant children education outlined by the Government of China from the late 1990s. In this article, we describe the unique and often difficult situation rural migrant children face after they enter urban public

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schools. Drawing from the Theory of Inclusive Education and data collected at two public junior high schools in Beijing, we provide an in-depth analysis on migrant children’s education from their own viewpoint and from the perspectives of their parents, teachers, and school administrators. Our survey results identify the need for further adjustments of the existing education system which can help improve migrant children’s education in China. […]. Inde LITTLE Angela W., Access to elementary education in India: Politics, policies and progress, CREATE Pathways to Access Research Monograph, No. 44, Centre for International Education, University of Sussex/Brighton, septembre 2010, 77 p. Retrieved from: http://www.create-rpc.org/pdf_documents/PTA44.pdf This monograph explores the politics and practices of policy-making and policy implementation with regard to elementary education in India in historical context. It addresses four main questions: What progress has there been in access to elementary education over the past 60 years? What policies for access to elementary education have been promoted? What role has political will played in the process of elementary education policy formulation? What have been the drivers and inhibitors of the implementation of reforms in elementary education in recent years? […] Sri Lanka LITTLE Angela W., ATURAPANE Harsha; SHOJO Mari, Transforming Primary Education in Sri Lanka: from a ‘subject’ of education to a ‘stage’ of education, World Bank /Washington, Report no 61, juillet 2013, 47 p. Retrieved from: http://goo.gl/KmmyPx Sri Lanka LITTLE Angela W., HETTIGE Siri T., Globalisation, employment, and education in Sri Lanka: opportunity and division, Routledge studies in education and Society in Asia, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group/London; New York, 2013, 288 p. Since the late 1970s, Sri Lanka has undergone a socio-economic transformation, shifting from a protectionist stance towards economic liberalization and increasing integration into the world economy. Through a systematic comparison of these periods of economic change, 1956 - 1977 and 1977 to the present, Angela Little and Siri Hettige examine the impact of this transformation on education, youth employment and equality of opportunity in Sri Lanka. Over the period in question, this book charts Sri Lanka's shift from an agricultural economy to one dominated by services and manufacturing, a reduction in unemployment, rising educational and occupational expectations and achievements and a reduction in poverty. In turn, it reveals a growing role for the private sector and foreign interests in post-secondary education and a modest growth in private education at the primary and secondary levels, and widening social disparities in access to qualifications, training and skills. […] Chine LIU Chengfang, ZHBYUnxiu, LUO Renfu, ROZELLE Scott, LOYALKA Prashant, « The effect of primary school mergers on academic performance of students in rural China », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 30 n° 6, novembre 2010, p. 570-585. We examine the impact of primary school mergers on academic performance of students using a dataset that we collected using a survey designed specifically to examine changes in the academic performance of students before and after their schools were merged. We use difference-in-differences and propensity score matching approaches and demonstrate that overall the primary school merger has not harmed the academic performance of students, as some have claimed. We do find, however, that the timing of mergers matter; when students are older (e.g., the fourth grade) their grades rise after merging. The grades of younger students, however, fall. Chine LU Yao, ZHOU Hao, « Academic Achievement and Loneliness of Migrant Children in China: School o Segregation and Segmented Assimilation », Comparative Education Review, vol. 57 n 1, février 2013, p. 85-116. China’s rural-urban migration presents a significant educational challenge. This study uses theories of segmented assimilation and school segregation to measure the assimilation and well-being of migrant children who attend either Beijing’s public schools or its informal migrant schools. Controlling for other

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factors, we find poorer achievement and greater loneliness among migrant children who are isolated in migrant schools than similar migrant students enrolled in regular urban public schools. We show there is little difference in learning outcome or loneliness between urban native children and migrant children who attend public schools. We further discuss similarities and differences between the experiences of migrant children in China and immigrant children in the United States. Chine MASLAK Mary Ann, KIM Juhu, MCLOUGHLIN Andrea Sabatini, « Educational engagement in China: A case from the Northwest », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 30 n° 3, mai 2010, p. 254-262. Reports show Chinese students have lower enrollment, higher dropout rates, and larger gender gaps in secondary schools in poor areas. Research indicates students’ perceptions about schooling contribute to their decisions about staying in school. In this study in a poor rural area with high percentages of minority students, the student questionnaire from the GSCF-2 investigated middle school students’ views on issues connected with educational engagement by gender and ethnic status. […]. Chine MO Di, YI Hongmei, ZHANG Linxiu, SHI Yaojiang, ROZELLE Scott, « Transfer paths and academic performance: The primary school merger program in China », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 32 n° 3, mai 2012, p. 423-431. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, China's Ministry of Education embarked on an ambitious program of primary school mergers by shutting down small village schools and opening up larger centralized schools in towns and county seats. The goal of the program was to improve the teacher and building resources in an attempt to raise the human capital of students in poor rural areas, although it was recognized that students would lose the opportunity to learn in the settings of their own familiar villages. Because of the increased distances to the new centralized schools, the merger program also entailed building boarding facilities and encouraging or mandating that students live at school during the week away from their family. […] Chine MOK Ka Ho, WONG Yu Cheung, GUO Yu, « Transforming from economic power to soft power: challenges for managing education for migrant workers' children and human capital in Chinese o cities », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 31 n 3, 2011, p. 325-344. In July 2010, the State Council of the People's Republic of China published an Outline for National Educational Development with a strong conviction to transform China from an economic power into a country of “soft power” and “strength in human resources”. […] Despite the noble policy goals set out by the Chinese government in asserting its soft power through the transformations to be introduced to its education systems and the proposal to engage in international collaborations, many citizens in the Mainland, especially the children of migrant (peasant) workers, are currently confronted with insufficient provision of education. This article critically examines issues confronting peasant worker children's education, with particular reference to the most recent policies and strategies adopted by the governments in Mainland China to deal with the growing educational demands from migrant workers' children. […]. Corée du Sud OH Eun-Soon, LEE Hye-Won, HAN Kyung-Seok., Innovative Learning and Its Effects: Multicultural Education in Miwon Primary School in Korea, OCDE, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI)/Paris, Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation (KICE)/Korea, 2012, 59 p. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/49945435.pdf This 3-year-project at Miwon Primary school included numerous activities in multi-cultural education and a programme focussing at students with multicultural/multilingual backgrounds. Examples of activities are supporting classes and extralanguage courses for students with multicultural backgrounds and their parents (also during holidays), and for all students multicultural and Korean culture experiencing days, after-school classes taught by bilingual parents, and bilingual presentation con tests. Students also produced movies on multicultural topics.

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Corée du Sud OLNECK Michael R., « Facing multiculturalism’s challenges in Korean education and society », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 12 no 4, décembre 2011, p. 675-690. Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are “dilemmas of difference,” “variable terms of inclusion,” and “legitimacy.” In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic homogeneity is prevalent, and official multicultural policy is limited in its reach to those who are designated as “multicultural families,” that is families in which one spouse is Korean and the other an immigrant, usually the wife, and their offspring. The exclusion of migrant workers and their families from Korea’s multicultural framework poses a core contradiction in Korean multicultural policies. […]. OSBORN Marylin, RAVEAUD Maroussia, « Classroom assessment practice in policy context ». In McGAW Barry, BAKER Eva, PETERSON Penelope (dir.) International Encyclopedia of Education, 3e éd. Oxford, Elsevier, 2010. Corée du Sud PARK Joo-Ho, « The effects of principal’s leadership style on support for innovation: evidence from Korean vocational high school change », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13 n° 1, mars 2012, p. 89-102. A climate of innovation and principal leadership in schools are regarded as significant factors in successfully implementing school change or innovation. Nevertheless, the relationship between the school climate supportive of innovation and the principal’s leadership has rarely been addressed to determine whether schools successfully perform their intended change. In this vein, this study investigated the impacts of the principal’s leadership style on the teacher’s perceived school climate in terms of support for innovation. […]. While the unobserved characteristics of school type and principals’ demographics were considered, results of the study revealed that the leadership style of the principal significantly affects how the teachers perceive the school climate in terms of support for innovation. More specifically, the findings of the study assert that principal’s leadership style as an Initiator or a Manger, rather than a Responder, can provide support for an organizational climate which enhances innovation in schools. […] Chine PENG Wen J., MCNESS Elizabeth, THOMAS Sally, WU Xiang Rong, ZHANG Chong, « Emerging perceptions of teacher quality and teacher development in China », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 34, janvier 2014, p. 77-89. This paper focuses on the work of senior high school teachers in three illustrative local authority regions of mainland China. […] Building on previous international literature and current Chinese education policy, this paper examines aspects of teachers’ work as experienced within the context of a fast developing emerging economy, which emphasises a clear link between individual and national development. Barriers identified as impacting on the provision of good quality teaching arose, largely, from the pressures due to changing societal patterns and the demands of far reaching curriculum reform, which highlighted tensions between a traditional reliance on the primacy of exam results and a newer demand for all round development and lifelong learning. In addition, there were common concerns with various structural and funding inequalities, both across different regions and between urban and rural schools, which could lead to differential student experience, shortages of specialised teachers, and a lack of opportunity for good quality professional development. Chine, Corée du Sud, Hong Kong,Taïwan PHILLION JoAnn, HUE Ming Tak, WANG Yuxiang, Minority Students in East Asia: Government Policies, School Practices and Teacher Responses, Routledge/London, 2011, 280 p. Minority students’ educational issues are often neglected in literature and in practice; social and educational conditions that have resulted from globalization – in particular issues pertaining to minority groups’ education, language and other human rights – receive little attention. In addition, many areas of East Asia have viewed themselves as single-ethnicity countries and have not articulated strong agendas around minority rights. The purpose of this book is to highlight key educational issues for specific minority populations in East Asia. Themes addressed include government policies related to minorities; equity issues in the education of minorities; school practices and teacher perspectives on

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minorities; identity construction in terms of language and culture; national versus ethnic identity; teacher education issues; and parental concerns. Chine PONG Myra, Educating the Children of Migrant Workers in Beijing: Migration, Education, and Policy in Urban China,Critical studies on education and society in China, Routledge/New York, 2014, 224 p. This book addresses the gap in the provision of basic education to migrant children in China. It examines the case in Beijing, with a focus on policy implementation at the municipal and district levels, and its impacts on migrant schools and their students. Migrant workers in big cities are unable to change their hukou (household registration) status, thus face serious obstacles in accessing basic social services, including schooling for their children. Despite policies and regulations from the central and municipal governments, there are broad and even extreme differences among district governments in implementing these policies. […] Chine - Shanghai QIAN Haiyan, WALKER Allan, « The ‘Gap’ Between Policy Intent and Policy Effect: An Exploration of the Interpretations of School Principals in China », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 15, décembre 2011, p. 187-208. This chapter explores the ‘gap’ between policy intent and policy effect through the eyes of a group of practising school principals in China. The reform policies targeted are the new curriculum, the school review system and personnel system. The universalising tendency of educational reform towards decentralisation and marketisation has swept across China as it has in Western democracies. Another trend Chinese education shares with other systems is that central policy initiatives go through a complex process of interpretation and re-interpretation before they reach schools, a pattern that continues as schools struggle to implement them. Using interview data collected from 11 secondary school principals in Shanghai, China, the chapter suggests that the way in which policy is interpreted and translated in schools is influenced by the particularities of the context, and that the status of the school plays a particularly important role in this process. […] Chine ROSS Heidi, WANG Yimin, « Reforming the College Entrance Examination: Epicenter of Tension, Change, and Resistance », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 15, décembre 2011, p. 209-236. This chapter begins with an examination of the complexities, challenges, and contradictions that are presented by policies and practices associated with the College Entrance Examination (CEE) and higher education admissions during the three decades of China's reform era. It then focuses on recent reform polices as outlined in the national education 2020 Blueprint (National Educational Reform and Development Plan, 2010–2020), which deepens the debate about the role of the CEE in shaping the mission of education and distributing opportunities and “talents” affecting social mobility, university autonomy, and national development. The CEE stands at the epicenter of educational reform, criticized for hamstringing institutional autonomy and innovation; reducing schooling to a soulless competition; and unfairly advantaging urban children with greater educational opportunities. […]. Shanghai SALGUES Camille, « Ethnographie du fait scolaire chez les migrants ruraux à Shanghai : l'enfance une dimension sociale irréductible », Politix, n° 99, vol. 25, octobre 2012, p. 129-152. La scolarisation des enfants de migrants ruraux en Chine fait aujourd’hui débat, dans le contexte d’un exode rural massif et d’une forte restriction de l’accès à la scolarité pour les nouveaux arrivants en ville. S’appuyant sur une enquête ethnographique réalisée dans un quartier dégradé aux marges de Shanghai, l’article propose une description d’une école privée pour migrants installée dans ce vide institutionnel, puis des formes que prend la scolarité au sein des familles à travers trois études de cas. La démarche s’efforce ainsi de restituer dans ses différentes facettes l’importance du fait scolaire, comme fait social, dans la vie de ces enfants. […]

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Chine SARGENT Tanja, KONG Peggy, ZHANG Yuping, « Home environment and educational transitions on the path to college in rural northwest China », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 34, janvier 2014, p. 98-109. In China, the National College Entrance Examination (gaokao) is an important gateway to future life outcomes. In this paper, we analyze longitudinal survey data from two waves (2004 and 2009) of the Gansu Survey of Children and Families to examine the home environment factors that predict successful transitions on the path to participation in the college entrance examination among rural youth in Gansu province. Our results show that parents play a crucial role in determining their children's life chances through their shaping of a nurturing home learning environment. Laos SILFVER Anne-Louise, « Emancipation or neo-colonisation? Global gender mainstreaming policies, Swedish gender equality politics and local negotiations about putting gender into education reforms in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic », Compare, 2010, vol. 40 n° 4, p. 479-495. This article reflects on gender mainstreaming policies post Beijing and their impact on development cooperation and relations between the Global North and Global South. The analysis is based on an examination of gender equality politics in Sweden, their connection with an interpretation of gender mainstreaming and the application of this approach in work on education change and development cooperation in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Interviews with Lao government officials at ministry and university levels are used to exemplify how gender mainstreaming can present both possibilities and problems in a local context. [...] Corée du Sud, Japon SO Kyunghee, SHIN Jiwon, SON Woojung, « A comparative study of classroom teaching in Korea and Japan: a case study on reforming schools into learning communities », Asia Pacific Education o Review, vol. 11 n 3, septembre 2010, p. 273-283. Some schools and teachers in Korea and Japan have begun practicing classroom-based reform according to similar visions of a learning community. The purpose of this study was to investigate reform efforts made by teachers in Korea and Japan toward turning classrooms into learning communities. Two elementary schools, School K in Korea and School T in Japan, were selected as major school sites. Research data was collected from two classrooms in each school through teacher interview and classroom observation. The results of our study showed that efforts made by teachers from the two countries, though aimed at similar goals to create learning communities and change classroom practices, produced different results. Teachers from both countries displayed differences in their views or attitudes toward the learning materials and the ways in which they build relationships with their students. […] Chine WANG Dan, The Demoralization of Teachers: Crisis in a Rural School in China,Emerging perspectives on education in China, Lexington books, 2013, 162 p. The educational system in China is marked by its dramatic inequality between rural and urban schools. The challenges facing rural schools are usually understood as disadvantages in funding, facilities, and staffing, which consequently result in undesirable student performance in general. This book, however, penetrates these phenomena on the surface and brings forth a much deeper moral crisis in rural education, a crisis that is entrenched in the complicated interlocking of formal and informal institutions within and beyond the school. The Demoralization of Teachers describes the work and workplace in a rural school from the perspective of teachers who were working there. […] Chine WANG Ling, « Le choix de l'établissement en Chine. Un dilemne pour l'équité en éducation », Éducation et sociétés, n° 29, 2012, p. 125-141. Disponible sur : http://www.cairn.info/resume.php?ID_ARTICLE=ES_029_0125 Le choix de l'établissement est entendu ici comme l'action des familles pour sélectionner un établissement scolaire adéquat pour leur enfant (unique en Chine). Il suppose une liberté et un droit que les familles exercent en toute autonomie. […] En Chine, il est d'abord vu comme un phénomène social et économique produisant des inégalités, surtout dans le cadre imposé de la carte scolaire. Ses

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effets supposés négatifs sont si forts qu'ils sont devenus un dilemme pour l'État face au rêve d'équité de l'enseignement. L'auteur analyse comment et pourquoi ce choix de l'établissement est aujourd'hui un objet de querelle, quelles sont ses caractéristiques – disparités régionales, écarts villescampagnes, création d'établissements pilotes, moyens financiers et poids du marché, etc.– et les orientations définies par les politiques éducatives chinoises.[…]] Chine - Shanghai WONG Jocelyn L. N., « Searching for good practice in teaching: a comparison of two subject-based professional learning communities in a secondary school in Shanghai », Compare: A Journal of o Comparative and International Education, vol. 40 n 5, 2010, p. 623-639. Since the middle1990s, the concept of professional learning communities has arisen in the education field in the West, aiming to improve teachers’ professional competency by using collaborative approaches. Western studies indicate that these strategies help teachers achieve professional growth. Schools in China have had a long history of enhancing the professional competency of teachers by using collaboration in school based contexts. But do professional learning communities in Chinese schools, especially in times of change, do the same for Chinese teachers? This study provides empirical data from Chinese teachers to assist global discussions on school-based professional development.[…]. Chine WONG Jocelyn L. N., « What makes a professional learning community possible? A case study of a Mathematics department in a junior secondary school of China », Asia Pacific Education Review, o vol. 11 n 2, juin 2010, p. 131-139. The concept of “professional learning community” (PLC) has been suggested as a tool to improve teachers’ professional competency and students’ learning outcomes since the mid-1990s. In such a community, teachers can share their individual practices with the aim of searching for “good practice” based on the outcome of collective inquiry. […]. China already has a long tradition of teachers working and learning collaboratively, so investigating collaborative efforts in this context may provide a view of how to contextualize professional development of teachers in schools. This study attempts to access teachers’ lenses in order to explore their views on the effects of subject-based professional learning activities. This also helps to explain how teachers work and openly share their practices aiming at improving their professional competency and student learning outcomes within their communities. […] Hong-Kong WONG Yu íiCheung, « The challenges for educational achieíements of young Mainland Chinese o migrants in Hong-Kong », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 31 n 3, 2011, p. 277-291. Hong-Kong's population has increased by around one million per decade from the end of World War II till the 1990s. A large proportion of this growth came from the mass influx of migrants from Mainland China, and the children born to them. During the 1960s and 1970s when Hong-Kong's economy was booming rapidly, career advancement opportunities were abundant even for the less educated migrants and their children. But when the economic restructuring occurred in the 1980s and 1990s, trades such as manufacturing and construction sectors, where a large number of workers with migration background were employed, were hit most hardly. The problem of the intergenerational transmission of poverty and low social mobility has now become the focus in the agenda of poverty alleviation. This article aims to use a subsample of the 2006 By-Census dataset to explore whether children with migration background from Mainland China were generally disadvantaged in their educational attainment and income. […] Corée du Sud WOO Myung Suk, « Equity in educational resources at the school level in Korea », Asia Pacific o Education Review, vol. 11 n 4, décembre 2010, p. 553-564. This paper analyzed the equity of resources at the elementary school level in Korea using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). The data included 2,327 Korean public elementary schools in 101 Local Governments within five Local Educational Offices (LEOs). This study found that schools in low property tax per resident areas receive fewer grants, showing a possible, positive relationship between wealth and educational resources. HLM analyses found that schools with higher percentages of free lunch students received more educational resources, indicating vertical equity. However, schools with higher percentages of special students received fewer resources, indicating inequity. These findings

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suggest recalibrating the school funding formula so that schools with high percentages of special students and with fewer grants from Local Governments could receive more funds from LEOs. Chine WU Jinting, « Disenchantment and participatory limits of compulsory education: lessons from o Southwest China », Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, vol. 42 n 4, 2012, p. 621-645. Despite the state’s unrelenting efforts to enforce compulsory basic education, schooling in rural ethnic China remains an elusive ideal that leads to massive dropout and prepares many only for factory sweatshops. Based on 16 months of ethnographic research, this article examines the disjuncture between the official education policy known as the Two Basics Project (TBP) and the lived practices and beliefs observed in two rural ethnic communities. It investigates how students’ disenchantment and withdrawal from school challenges compulsory education as a fragile universalist attempt at social progress. Instead of merely examining what factors contribute to the policy failure, the analysis questions the very ‘progressive’ ideals and teleological visions at work in China’s educational programming, and challenges binaries such as literacy/illiteracy, cultured/uncultured, modernity/traditionalism. Chine WU Xiaxin, School Choice in China: A different tale?,Critical studies on education and society in China, Routledge/New York, 2014, 168 p. School Choice in China explores the major characteristics of schooling options in China, highlighting how largely middle-class parents exploit their cultural, economic and social capital for their children's admission into choice schools. It highlights how payments such as choice fees, donations, prizewinning certificates and awards, as well as the use of guanxi, result in Chinese school choice as a parent-driven, bottom-up movement. The author also explores how schools and local governments cash in on the school choice fever in order to obtain significant economic returns, leading to policies that accommodate the needs of mostly middle-class families. He argues that although this system seems to create winners among the parties involved, it exacerbates the educational inequality that already exists in Chinese society. Chine YI Hongmei, ZHANG Linxiu, LUO Renfu, SHI Yaojiang, MO Di, « Dropping out: Why are students leaving junior high in China's poor rural areas? », International Journal of Educational o Development, vol. 32 n 4, juillet 2012, p. 555-563. Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few independent, survey-based studies regarding dropout rates in China. Between 2009 and 2010 we surveyed over 7800 grade 7, 8, and 9 students from 46 randomly selected junior high schools in four counties in two provinces in North and Northwest China to measure the dropout rate. […] According to the study's findings, drop out rates between grade 7 and grade 8 reached 5.7% and dropout rates between grade 8 and grade 9 reached 9.0%. In sum, among the total number of students attending junior high school during the first month of the first term of grade 7, 14.2% had left school by the first month of grade 9. […] Chine YANG Dongping ed., Chinese research perspectives on educational development. Vol. 1, Brill/Leiden, 2013, 400 p. This volume starts with an excellent overview of educational developments in 2010, which witnessed the formulation of the Outline of China’s National Plan for Medium and Long Term Educational Reform and Development 2010-2020. With the formulation of the Outline and the start of implementation in 2011, China saw progress by the government, at all levels, in prioritizing educational development. Scholars and practitioners discuss the significance of the Outline and its implications on the development and reform of pre-school education, basic education and higher education. In addition, this volume provides timely surveys and research on a variety of topics from government’s investment in education to the mental health of Elementary and Secondary school teachers and students.

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Chine YANG Dongping ed., Chinese research perspectives on educational development. Vol. 2, Brill/Leiden, 2014. In this volume, readers are brought up to date on the main educational issues and events of 2012. 2012, the second year since the Outline of China’s National Plan for Medium and Long Term Education Reform and Development 2010-2020 was implemented, witnessed the deepening of education reform in terms of promoting education equity and improving rural education and balanced development of compulsory education. This volume starts with a general report by Cheng Fangping and Yang Dongping that explains the new progress as well as barriers of education reform in 2012. Researchers and practitioners discuss the development and reform of rural schools, education for migrant workers’ children, impacts of educational resources on urban and rural children, new progress of higher education. Corée du Sud YON Kyu Jin, JOENG Ju-Ri, GOH Michael, « A longitudinal study of career maturity of Korean adolescents: the effects of personal and contextual factors », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13 no 4, décembre 2012, p. 727-739. The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. […] The results showed the levels of Korean adolescents’ career maturity were significantly influenced by personal predictors (gender, work values, career efficacy, self-efficacy, career development activities, school achievement, sex-role stereotyping, pressure for academic achievement, and part-time experiences) and contextual predictors (career conversations with parents, relationships with friends, and private education expense). Among careerrelated variables, only work values affected the slope of the career maturity growth curve.

Chine - Shanghai ZHANG Xiao Feng, NG Ho Ming, « A case study of teacher appraisal in Shanghai, China: in relation to teacher professional development », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 12 no 4, décembre 2011, p. 569-580. Literature has confirmed that teacher appraisal can and should facilitate the professional development of teachers. In the past, teacher appraisal in China has been conducted mainly for administrative purposes; nowadays, it is increasingly being viewed as a means of teacher professional development. However, the way in which teacher appraisal affects teacher professional development has not been fully recognized. This case study, of a junior secondary school in Shanghai, China, explores how teacher appraisal has been carried out and how teachers and administrators have perceived it in relation to teacher professional development. The research findings identify the mechanism by which the teacher appraisal system in question facilitates professional development. The system creates pressure and extrinsic incentives that ‘push and pull’ teachers to improve, and supports their growth through guidance and directions. […] Chine ZHANG Xiulan (ed)., China’s education development and policy, 1978-2008, Brill/Leiden, 2011, 480 p. China’s Education Development and Policy, 1978-2008 is translated from the original Chinese version and presents the current assessment of the changes to the educational system in China and how those changes have been perceived during the past thirty years. This volume and the others in the SSRC series, provide western scholars with an accessible English language look at the state of current scholarship in China, and as such, does not simply provide information for the direct study of socio-political issues, but also for meta-level analysis of how the domestic scholarship in China is developing and assessing the interplay of the country's political and economic reforms with the society and daily life of its people.

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Chine ZHAO Dan, PAROLIN Bruno, « School mapping restructure in rural China: achievements, problems and implications », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13 no 4, décembre 2012, p. 713-726. This study considers the experience of school mapping restructure (SMR) in areas of rural China. It aims to understand what happened after SMR implementation. Through a combination of instruments such as questionnaires, interviews and document analysis, the study finds that SMR has impacted positively on the development of education in terms of generating scaling benefits, improved school conditions and educational quality, and more equitable distribution of educational resources. However, there remain several associated problems including longer schooling commute, household financial restrictions and student pressures, and increased teacher work-loads. […].

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Atelier 5. École et sociétés, la confiance en jeu Workshop 5. School and society : A matter of trust AURINI Janice, DAVIES Scott, DIERKES Julian, « Out of the Shadows? An Introduction to Worldwide Supplementary Education », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 22, novembre 2013, p. xv-xxiv. This book is about “supplementary education.” Supplementary education refers to academic instruction that takes place during nonschool time including after school, on the weekends or during summer vacation. Juku, cram schools, and private tutoring are common examples. These supplements are typically offered outside of formal education systems, and do not lead to a recognized credential. Some scholars refer to these supplements as “shadow education,” emphasizing how some forms of supplementary education serves to mimic and closely parallel instruction and curriculum in mainline school systems. Corée du Sud BAE Sanghoon, OH Hunseok, KIM Hyunchul, LEE Cheolwon, OH Beomho, « The impact of afterschool programs on educational equality and private tutoring expenses », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 11 no 3, septembre 2010, p. 349-361. The purpose of this study was to examine how the implementation of after-school programs in Korea’s public schools is related to educational equality and private tutoring expenses. The analyzed data was from the Survey on the Status of Private Tutoring and the Study of the Policy Measures to Reduce Private Tutoring Expenses conducted by KEDI (Korea Education Development Institute) in (International conference for exploring the ways to activate the after-school program, KEDI, Seoul, 2007). […]. The study found that: (a) in general, low-income and rural students participated more than higher income and urban peers in after-school programs and (b) after-school participation was generally negatively associated with private tutoring engagement and the impact of after-school participation on the reduction in private tutoring expenses was stronger for low-income students in elementary and high schools and rural students in high schools. BRAY Mark, L'ombre du système éducatif : quel soutien scolaire privé, quelles politiques publiques ?, UNESCO. IIPE/Paris, 2011, 140 p. Disponible sur : http://goo.gl/p1iNHo « L’ombre du système éducatif » fait référence au soutien scolaire privé. Cet enseignement, qui existe depuis longtemps dans certaines régions d’Asie de l’Est, devient prééminent dans d’autres parties de l’Asie ainsi qu’en Afrique, en Amérique du Nord et en Europe. Les élèves reçoivent un enseignement gratuit dans les établissements publics pendant la journée et, à la fin de celle-ci et/ou pendant les week-ends et les vacances, paient des cours supplémentaires sur les mêmes matières qu’ils étudient en classe. […] L’ouvrage évalue d’abord l’ampleur, la nature et les implications du soutien scolaire privé dans divers contextes. Il identifie ensuite les éventuelles réponses que les gouvernements peuvent proposer pour encourager une approche proactive selon laquelle les autorités publiques déterminent les types de soutien scolaire souhaitables et mettent en place les politiques appropriées pour encadrer les plus problématiques d’entre eux. Hong-Kong BRAY Mark, « Benefits and tensions of shadow education: comparative perspectives on the roles and impact of private supplementary tutoring in the lives of Hong-Kong students », Journal of international and comparative education, vol. 2 n° 1, 2013, p. 18-30. Retrieved from : http://crice.um.edu.my/downloads/bray.pdf Over half of Hong-Kong’s secondary students receive private supplementary tutoring, and in the last grade of secondary schooling the proportion exceeds 70%. […].The scale of private tutoring has grown significantly in the last two decades, and has become a standard feature of the lives of many families. Some tutoring is provided one-to-one by professionals, semi-professionals or amateurs; other tutoring is provided in small groups; and yet other tutoring is provided in lecture formats. Such tutoring demands significant financial investment by households, and also consumes substantial amounts of students’ time. […] This paper presents Hong-Kong data within a framework that compares local patterns with those in other parts of the world. It raises questions about the implications of patterns and about appropriate responses for families, educators and policy makers.

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BRAY Mark, LYKINS Chad, Shadow education: private supplementary tutoring and its implications for policy makers in Asia, Asian Development Bank/Philippines, mai 2012, 114 p. Retrieved from: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2012/shadow-education.pdf In all parts of Asia, households devote considerable expenditures to private supplementary tutoring. This tutoring may contribute to students’ achievement, but it also maintains and exacerbates social inequalities, diverts resources from other uses, and can contribute to inefficiencies in education systems. Such tutoring is widely called shadow education, because it mimics school systems. As the curriculum in the school system changes, so does the shadow. This study documents the scale and nature of shadow education in different parts of the region. For many decades, shadow education has been a major phenomenon in East Asia. Now it has spread throughout the region, and it has farreaching economic and social implications. BRAY Mark , KWO Ora, Regulating private tutoring for public good: policy options for supplementary education in Asia, UNESCO/Bangkok, Comparative education research centre/The University of Hong-Kong, 2014, n° 10, 105 p. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002270/227026e.pdf The book focuses on the extensive scale of private tutoring in countries of the region, regardless of their development status. The work shows wide diversity in the regulations introduced by governments in the Asian region. It notes not only that these governments can learn much from each other, but also that policy makers in other parts of the world can usefully look at patterns in Asia. The book also stresses the value of partnerships between governments, tutoring providers, schools, teachers’ unions, and other bodies. Indonésie, Malaisie BUANG Sa'eda, CHEW Phyllis Ghim-Lian, Muslim Education in the 21st Century: Asian perspectives, Routledge Critical Studies in Asian Education, Routledge, 2014, 224 p. Muslim Education in the 21st Century reinvestigates the current state of affairs in Muslim education in Asia whilst at the same time paying special attention to Muslim schools’ perception of educational changes and the reasons for such changes. It highlights and explores the important question of whether the Muslim school has been reinventing itself in the field of pedagogy and curriculum to meet the challenges of the 21st century education. It interrogates the schools whose curriculum content carry mostly the subject of religion and Islam as its school culture. Typologically, these include stateowned or privately-run madrasah or dayah in Aceh, Indonesia; pondok, traditional Muslim schools largely prevalent in the East Malaysian states and Indonesia; pesantren, Muslim boarding schools commonly found in Indonesia; imam-khatip schools in Turkey, and other variations in Asia. Chine, Taïwan CHAN Sheng-Ju, « Cross-border educational collaboration between Taiwan and China: the o implications for educational governance », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 31 n 3, 2011, p. 311-323. Taiwan has undertaken a series of cross-border collaboration with China for the past two decades. This paper aims to investigate the Taiwanese approach and policies of educational collaboration with China in a globalized context, where international competitiveness has become a great concern for most countries. It also examines how the Taiwanese government's cross-border educational collaboration will affect the flow of human capital across the Taiwan Strait and reflect upon the challenges of educational governance in Taiwan. […] Taïwan CHOU Chuing Prudence, CHING Gregory S., Taiwan education at the crossroad: when globalization meets localization, Palgrave Macmillan/New York, 2012, 316 p. This book examines the processes of schooling in Taiwan amidst the social, cultural, economic, and political conflicts resulting from local and global dilemmas and issues. The book opens with an introductory chapter detailing the recent world-wide phenomenon in education, i.e. globalization and localization, followed by parts one through five to showcase the different perspectives of Taiwan's education. Collectively these sections offer a panoramic and in-depth glimpse from the past to the future of educational trends in Taiwan, and the ongoing educational exchanges with China and the world.

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Inde CHUDGAR Amita, « Teacher Labor Force and Teacher Education in India: An Analysis of a Recent Policy Change and its Potential Implications », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 19, mars 2013, p. 55-76. This chapter discusses an education law recently enacted in India – The Right of Children to Free and Compulsary Education – its implementation plan and potential implications, focusing on the teacher labor force composition and the teacher education system. The Right to Education Act specifies acceptable pupil–teacher ratios, levels of teacher vacancy in the school, qualifications required for teacher appointments, and terms and conditions for teacher hiring, among other things. […] These policy changes intended to increase equity in teacher distribution may in the near future exacerbate inequities in access to quality teachers and teaching across India. The policy creates important and urgent changes in the Indian teacher labor force, and by extension, it demands changes in the Indian teacher education system. […] Japon COOK Melodie, « Expatriate parents and supplementary education in Japan: survival strategy or o acculturation strategy », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 14 n 3, septembre 2013, p. 403-417. The increase in the use of supplementary education, or juku, in Japan by Japanese families in order to augment their children’s chances of success in entering prestigious pre-tertiary and tertiary institutions is documented […] but there is little known about the use of supplementary education by an evergrowing number of families in Japan in which one or both parents are an expatriate. This exploratory countrywide study of such families hopes to address this lack of research. Initial results show that while a number of factors related to their own culture and values about childhood, education, and family life influence some families’ decision not to send their children to juku, most families tend to use these services for many of the same reasons as their Japanese counterparts, although to a different degree. In addition, they seem to use these services because they are counseled to do so by insiders, or because supplementary education provides other services which help them to navigate the Japanese educational system. […]. DE GRAUWE Anton, « Contextes et comparaisons. La nécessité de comparer ce qui est apparemment incomparable », Éducation comparée, 2010, n° 3, p. 93-112 La comparaison entre systèmes éducatifs de pays de niveaux de développement très différents, pour qu’elle soit faisable et utile, doit examiner l’action de régulation entreprise par différents acteurs, dont l’Etat, et les disparités entre et au sein de ces groupes d’acteurs. Une telle comparaison permet de comprendre les processus qui ont conduit chaque pays à élaborer son système et les contraintes auxquelles les réformes sont confrontées. Elle illustre également l’inanité d’une recherche de lois et de réformes universelles. Vietnam DANG Hai-Anh, « Private Tutoring in Vietnam: A Review of Current Issues and its Major Correlates », o International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 22 n , novembre 2013, p. 95-127. […] This chapter provides an updated and systematic review of the private tutoring phenomenon in

Vietnam. Findings are highly relevant to the ongoing debates on private tutoring among all stakeholders in Vietnam, as well as policymakers/researchers in other countries. Japon DIERKES Julian, « Teaching in the shadow: operators of small shadow education institutions in o Japan », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 11 n 1, mars 2010, p. 25-35. The shadow education sector plays a centrally important role in the Japanese education system. Advocates of Japanese shadow education institutions, or juku, claim that the pedagogy employed in these schools leads to superior results compared to teaching methods used in conventional schools. The lack of value-added testing of juku results suggests that these claims have not been tested. In this article, I examine the background of the owner– operators of small juku and the challenges they face in hiring teaching staff. […]

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Japon DIERKES Julian, « The Insecurity Industry: Supplementary Education in Japan », International o Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 22 n , novembre 2013, p. 3-21. To understand high demand for juku and yobiko, this chapter reviews the history, institutionalization, areas of innovation, and future of supplementary education in Japan. Fieldwork in owner-operated supplementary education institutions. The Japanese government has long publicly disavowed the existence of a large-scale supplementary education industry (juku and yobiko). Over the past 20 years or so, waves of moral panics regarding education (bullying, breakdown of classroom discipline, decline of academic abilities, school refusal, etc.) have led to a profound sense of insecurity among parents. While supplementary education has its roots in demographic and economic developments of the 1970s, its recent growth and further institutionalization into a mature business sector has been built on parents’ insecurity. This institutionalization marks Japanese supplementary education as a highintensity system. Juku is particularly interesting in comparative perspective since Japan contains a highly institutionalized form of “hyper-education.” Chine DING Xiaojiong, Policy Metamorphosis in China: A Case Study of Minban Education in Shanghai,Emerging perspectives on education in China, Lexington books, 2011, 260 p. This book studies the processes of policy implementation in contemporary mainland China by taking minban/private education at the level of basic education in Shanghai as an example. [...] The pyramid of Chinese politics is a loose construction, with vertical and horizontal fracturations between different layers. The model highlights the fact that governments at the county/district level are remote from and beyond the control of the Central Government and the provinces. They deserve more attention than they have received. Contrary to Western perspectives which regard the structural fracturation in the Chinese polity as dangerous for national stability and unity, this book takes the fracturation as an important and delicate element of the Chinese mode of governance, and suggests that the very strength of the state lies in its capacity to tolerate local deviation and to embrace it into national institutions. Inde DYER Caroline, « Formal education and pastoralism in western India: inclusion, or adverse o incorporation? », Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, vol. 42 n 2, 2012, p. 259-281. The education exclusion of pastoralists is increasingly recognised as a critical area for attention in progress towards Education For All. This article sets out two interlinked propositions as to what underlies barriers to education inclusion for pastoralists in India: a conflation of ‘education’ with schooling; and ambiguity over whether pastoralism is a relevant contemporary livelihood. Taking an adverse incorporation and social exclusion perspective on marginality, policy narratives of education inclusion are explored using its construct of ‘terms of inclusion’. Empirical evidence showing how pastoralism and formal education intersect demonstrates multi-faceted exclusions which simultaneously drive demand for schooling and impose highly adverse terms of incorporation for pastoralism in the globalising economy. Malaisie GOH Pauline Swee Choo, WONG Kung Teck, « The Malaysian teacher standards: a look at the challenges and implications for teachers educators », Educational Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 11 n° 2, juin 2012, p. 73-87. Talks of education transformation to improve the quality and outcomes of education in Malaysia culminated in the articulation of standards for teachers. The all new Malaysian Teacher Standards (MTS) launched in 2009 is to establish ‘high competency’ standards for the teaching profession and to increase the status of teachers in Malaysia. This article briefly describes the standards that concern teachers and teacher educators alike. It is proposed that there are three challenges to the standards system that teacher educators may face. […].

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Malaisie GOH Pauline Swee Choo, WONG Kung Teck, « Beginning teachers’ conceptions of competency: implications to educational policy and teacher education in Malaysia », Educational Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 13 n° 1, février 2014, p. 65-79. When any innovations or measurement procedures are introduced into the education system to improve or judge the quality of its teaching force, beginning teachers often have to adapt to these new concepts of what constitute a high quality teaching. This article contends that these new concepts neither necessarily match beginning teachers’ own conceptions about their own competency nor has it given beginning teachers a chance to be heard. This study provides an opportunity for beginning teachers’ ‘voices’ to be heard through phenomenography which is an interpretive research approach to discover what beginning teachers in Malaysia conceive and understand as competence in relation to what they do every day as teachers. […]. Chine, Corée du Sud, Japon HAN SoongHee, MAKINO Atsushi, « Learning cities in East Asia: Japan, the Republic of Korea and China », International review of education, septembre 2013, vol. 59, n° 4, p. 443-468. Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11159-013-9372-2#page-1 Inde HÄRMÄ Joanna, « Low cost private schooling in India: Is it pro poor and equitable? », International o Journal of Educational Development, vol. 31 n 4, mai 2011, p. 350-356. India has seen an explosion in low-fee private (LFP) schooling aimed at the poorer strata of society, and this once-urban phenomenon has spread in the last decade to rural areas, with implications for equity due to the level of direct costs involved. This study explores whether or not LFP schooling in rural India is pro-poor and equitable, and finds that these schools are unaffordable to the bottom two wealth quintiles of families. This conclusion has implications for policy formation and shows that increased reliance on a market in education will not help to achieve equitable access to primary schooling for all. Indonésie, Pakistan HEYNEMAN Stephen P., STERN Jonathan M. B., « Low cost private schools for the poor: What public policy is appropriate? », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 35, mars 2014, p. 3-15. Recent attention has focused on the existence of non-government schools that cater to children from low-income families. These schools can now be found in the majority of developing countries, many of which have a prescribed public policy to provide free public education. This raises the question, why would a low-income family choose to send a child to a fee-paying school if a place in a free school were available? This paper will report on case studies of low-fee schools in Jamaica, Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Indonesia and Pakistan and will assess the reasons for their increased demand. […] This paper will consider what public policy should be toward low-cost private schools, including the policy of development assistance agencies which seek to assist low and middle income countries as well as the appropriate public policy for national and local governments. […] Chine HUANG Min-Hsiung, « After-School Tutoring and the Distribution of Student Performance », o Comparative Education Review, vol. 57 n 4, novembre 2013, p. 689-710. As more primary and secondary students worldwide seek after-school tutoring in academic subjects, concerns are being raised about whether after-school tutoring can raise average test scores without widening the variability in student performance, and whether students of certain ability levels may benefit more than others from after-school tutoring. To address these questions, I compared the distributions of student performance across countries with differing levels of participation in afterschool tutoring, while controlling for country-level unobserved heterogeneity using a fixed-effects model. Participating in either mathematics or science tutoring after school is found to raise national average performance without widening the dispersion in student performance. In science, lowperforming students benefit more from tutoring than do high-performing students. In mathematics, high-performing students benefit more from tutoring than do low-performing students.

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Malaisie JELANI Juliana, TAN Andrew K.G., « Determinants of participation and expenditure patterns of private tuition received by primary school students in Penang, Malaysia: an exploratory study », Asia Pacific o Journal of Education, vol. 32 n 1, 2012, p. 35-51. In this exploratory study, the censored Tobit model is applied on primary data collected amongst parents of primary school students in Penang, Malaysia to examine the determinants of participation and expenditures on private tuition (PT). Results of the marginal effects indicate that sociodemographic characteristics – ethnicity, household income, level of schooling, and marital status – affect the probability of participation and its corresponding conditional (amongst those whose spending is positive) and unconditional (overall) expenditures. Specifically, compared to ethnic Malays, households of Chinese and Indian descent are more likely to send their children to PT, whilst spending more on conditional and unconditional expenditures, ceteris paribus. […] Corée du Sud JUNG Jin Hwa, LEE Kyung Hee, « The determinants of private tutoring participation and attendant o expenditures in Korea », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 11 n 2, juin 2010, p. 159-168. With the growing worldwide prevalence of private tutoring, the causes and effects of private tutoring have been drawing increasing attention both academically and policy wise. This study intends to draw policy implications by investigating the determinants of private tutoring participation of school-aged children and expenditures per child for such private tutoring. The logistic regression (for participation), OLS, and F.E. panel models (for expenditures) were adopted for the analysis, using the Korean panel data. The empirical findings indicate that private tutoring for children—both in terms of participation and expenditures—has a positive correlation with the mother’s educational attainment (preference effect), a negative correlation with the mother’s employment status (time constraint effect), and a positive correlation with the household income (income effect). Malaisie KEE Geok Hwa, « The models and hard cores: selective acculturation and racial stratification in o Chinese students’ school experience in Malaysia », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 11 n 4, décembre 2010, p. 467-476. Are the academic and social experiences of Chinese Malaysian students as much an outcome of the selective acculturation strategy of their parents as the linguistic assimilation policy of the government? Driven by economic necessity on one hand and pressured by cultural preservation on the other, Chinese parents first send their sons and daughters to Chinese-medium primary schools and then Malay-medium secondary schools. Facing linguistic assimilation and racial stratification, students with opportunistic attitudes accumulate language capital and obey discipline rules. Those with oppositional attitudes and defiant behaviors are labeled as “hard cores” and pressured to quit school. As “model students” (high achievers) become technical professionals and “hard cores” (low achievers) work as unskilled workers for co-ethnic entrepreneurs, social stratification is reproduced within the Chinese community. Malaisie KENAYATHULLA Husaina Banu, « Household expenditures on private tutoring: emerging evidence o from Malaysia », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 14 n 4, décembre 2013, p. 629-644. Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head’s level of education, household head’s gender, number of school-age children, and home ownership are important determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia. In comparison with Malay households, Chinese and Indian households have a higher likelihood of enrolling their children in private tutoring and spending on private tutoring. Indigenous households are less likely to spend for tutoring, but once their children are enrolled, they spend more than their Malay counterparts. Regional characteristics are also important determinants of private tutoring expenditures.

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Malaisie KENAYATHULLA Husaina Banu, « Ethical Issues in the Malaysian Education System », Educational Philosophy theory, janvier 2014, p. 629-644. Malaysia is a multi-ethnic country in which the government gives preferential treatment in education, employment, and ownership to its majority ethnic group: Bumiputera. However, affirmative action policies in the current Malaysian context should work according to John Rawls’ Theory of Justice by being based on income rather than ethnicity. Certainly Malaysian Government should be praised for giving freedom to the Chinese and Indians to select their preferred school and this is partly consistent with Amartya Sen’s view of freedom; however this article argues that these communities are apparently given constraint freedom of choice. Pakistan KHAN Asif, « Instructional management of a private and a government secondary school principal in o Northern Pakistan », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 32 n 1, janvier 2012, p. 120-131. This study investigated the instructional management of a private and a government secondary school principal in the Gigit-Baltistan region of Northern Pakistan. The study used the following lenses to examine the instructional behavior of the two principals: supervisory techniques, professional development activities, curriculum enrichment, and the availability of instructional resources. A comparison between the levels of engagement of the private and public school principals for the promotion of instructional matter suggests that the private school principal spent more time than the government principal on the development of instructional practices in his school. The study maintains that variables, such as structural processes, personal disposition of principals, and staff characteristics, led the two subjects to deal with their instructional responsibility differently. Corée du Sud KIM Kyung-Min, PARK Daekwon, « Impacts of urban economic factors on private tutoring industry », o Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13 n 2, juin 2012, p. 273-280. This paper investigates both supply (the number of employees in the PT industry and the number of PT institutions) and demand (the number of middle and high school students, grade 7–12). Panel data are used for this research, making it possible to analyze market growth over time since it contains both cross-sectional and time-series information. Also this research sheds light on regional differences (urban socio-economic factors) which influence the growth of the PT market. […]. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether the changes in the demand for PT affect the growth of PT market between 2001 and 2006 in 25 gu (borough) of Seoul. Urban economic and industrial structures and income were controlled because they are known to influence the PT market along with demand for PT. Corée du Sud KIM Ji-Ha, PARK Daekwon, « The determinants of demand for private tutoring in South Korea », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 11 no 3, septembre 2010, p. 411-421. This study investigated the determinants of the demand for private tutoring (PT) in South Korea, especially focusing on the effectiveness of governmental regulations regarding the operating hours of cram schools in decreasing expenditure on PT. […] Results showed that among student and family background characteristics, students’ achievement level, household income, and parents’ educational level were positively associated with a higher consumption of PT. At the school level, students attending schools with higher student–teacher ratios were expected to spend more on PT. Urban schools under the high school equalization policy (HSEP) showed larger expenditure on PT than nonHSEP schools. […]. Taïwan LEE Amy H. I., YANG Chih-Neng, LIN Chun-Yu, « Evaluation of children’s after-school programs in Taiwan: FAHP approach », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13 no 2, juin 2012, p. 347-357. The need of after-school programs has become urgent for school-age children in many industrialized countries due to social structure changes. This research develops a hierarchical framework to evaluate after-school programs from two distinct aspects—service quality from parents’ perspectives and marketing strategy from operators’ perspectives—each aspect respectively associated with five mutually independent criteria. […] The results show that the top three concerns from parents’

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perspectives are communication and attentiveness, teacher qualification and counseling, and fee and location, whereas the top three concerns from operators’ perspectives are promotion, price, and product. […] Corée du Sud LEE Chong Jae, LEE Heesook, JANG Hyo-Min, « The history of policy responses to shadow education in South Korea: implications for the next cycle of policy responses », Asia Pacific o Education Review, vol. 11 n 1, mars 2010, p. 97-108. Shadow education has been a challenge to public education in South Korea since the 1960s. Government has responded to shadow education with various types of policy responses. The assumption on the possibility of reducing the demand mechanism led the policy to eliminate competitive high stakes examinations and even prohibit participating in shadow education. However, the policy response with this assumption has not been effective. The policy responses to the problematic symptoms had been short period prescription, which were able to bring about immediate effects. South Korean experiences suggest that we need to formulate long-term policy frameworks for developing the quality of public education in responding to shadow education. Japon LEVI ALVARES Claude, « Une privatisation inégalitaire des usages scolaires », Revue internationale o d’éducation de Sèvres, n 62, avril 2013, p. 39-48. Le modèle centralisé de l’éducation japonaise a connu d’importantes transformations au cours des vingt dernières années. Face à des établissements scolaires sommés de se démarquer et de décliner leur caractère propre, les parents ont été invités à se transformer en consommateurs avisés. Les aménagements de la carte scolaire et l’augmentation de l’alternative privée dans les grandes métropoles ont renforcé les tendances à la clientélisation dans un système déjà caractérisé par l’expansion de l’industrie privée des Juku. L’auteur retrace cette évolution et interroge le renforcement des inégalités qu’elle induit. Taïwan LIU Jeng, « Does cram schooling matter? Who goes to cram schools? Evidence from Taiwan », o International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 32 n 1, janvier 2012, p. 46-52.. Attendance at cram schools is an experience that the majority of Taiwanese have while growing up. However, the incidence and impact of cram schooling are still understudied and have yet received much attention. In this paper, I first illustrate the development of cram schools in Taiwan, and demonstrate the important changes on institutional factors and legitimacy of cram schools. Then I use data collected by Taiwan Education Panel Survey to investigate the net effect of cram schooling on students’ academic performance, and to test whether the opportunity of cram school participation reflects specific patterns of stratification. […] Corée du Sud LUBIENSKI Christopher, LEE Jin, « Making Markets: Policy Construction of Supplementary Education in the United States and Korea », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 22, novembre 2013, p. 223-244. This analysis addresses the question of how the goals motivating policies around markets for supplementary education are supported and reflected (or not) in the subsequent structures for those markets. […]The analysis finds that Korea is using school-based SE programs as an alternative to existing SE markets in order to mediate perceived free-market excesses, while the United States is subsidizing SE markets to address the negative consequences of inequitable schooling. Yet, even in different contexts and purposes, policymakers in both countries see a value to supplementary education as part of their overall education strategy, despite a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of these approaches. […] LUGAZ Candy, DE GRAUWE Anton, Renforcer le partenariat école-communauté : résultats d'une recherche au Bénin au Niger et au Sénégal, UNESCO. IIPE/Paris, 2010, 169 p. Disponible sur : http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001881/188150f.pdf L'importance des relations école-communauté et la diversité de celles-ci ont amené l'IIPE, des instituts de recherche nationaux et l'ONG Plan à entreprendre une recherche plus détaillée sur les facteurs expliquant et déterminant l'existence d'une bonne relation entre l'école et la communauté. La

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publication présente les résultats de la recherche menée auprès de structures de représentation des parents, de la communauté et du personnel de l'école au Bénin, au Niger et au Sénégal. La première partie analyse et synthétise les principales leçons de cette recherche. La seconde présente les trois études de cas. Malaisie MACHART Régis , LIM Sep Neo, « De la diversité des écoles à la diversité de l'école : l'école primaire malaisienne en questions », Revue internationale d'éducation de Sèvres, n° 63, septembre 2013, p. 67-75. L'enseignement primaire malaisien était morcelé pendant la période coloniale sur des bases ethniques. De nos jours, il l'est en fonction de la langue d'enseignement : les écoles nationales accueillent les Malaisiens pour les scolariser en malais et proposent parfois un enseignement de la langue d'origine. Parallèlement, on trouve des écoles primaires à vernaculaire chinois ou tamoul. Le résultat en est une partition de la société en trois communautés évoluant pratiquement indépendamment les unes des autres. Le gouvernement a mis en place les Vision Schools regroupant sur une même implantation des écoles de types différents afin de remédier à ce clivage. Malaisie MALAKOLUNTHU Suseela, IDRIS Abdul Rahman, RENGASAMY Nagappan C., « Teacher professional experience and performance: impact of the work environment and general welfare in o Malaysian secondary schools », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 11 n 4, décembre 2010, p. 609-617. This study investigated the work environment and general welfare of the Malaysian secondary school teachers. Past studies have explicated that the experience of work environment and general welfare exerted a direct influence on the performance of the teachers, hence student outcome. In the factor analysis, the study identified six factors, namely collective purpose, respect and recognition, job design, health and learning, work load, and institutional support as the components of work environment affecting Malaysian teachers. When the factors were subjected to a survey inquiry, the results revealed that the Malaysian teachers were having an adverse professional experience with regard to the work environment and general welfare. Malaisie MALAKOLUNTHU Suseela, VASUDEVAN Vasundhara, « Teacher evaluation practices in Malaysian o primary schools: issues and challenges », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13 n 3, septembre 2012, p. 449-456. This paper describes a qualitative case study that investigated the underlying issues in implementing school-based teacher evaluation practices in four Malaysian primary schools. The participants of the study comprised eight school administrators and sixteen teachers. Data obtained through interviews, observations, and document reviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method. The analysis captured four thematic constructs as key aspects of the school-based teacher evaluation system, namely: policy direction, evaluation methods, instruments, and utilization of evaluation results. The paper recommends revamping of the existing school-based teacher evaluation system along the emergent constructs identified in the study. Japon MORI Izumi, BAKER David, « The origin of universal shadow education: what the supplemental education phenomenon tells us about the postmodern institution of education », Asia Pacific o Education Review, vol. 11 n 1, mars 2010, p. 36-48. Prodigious growth in out-of-school, private educational activities meant to supplement formal schooling is observed worldwide. Why has shadow education expanded, and what does it mean for the future of education in postmodern society? Illustrated by the historical development and recent changes in the Japanese shadow education industry, it is suggested that shadow education follows the institutional logic of formal education. And as this logic has become more homogenized and expansive globally, so have the forms and goals of shadow education. Because of its focus on learning and achievement, which are central to formal education, it is predicted that shadow education will be increasingly incorporated into the broader culture of education. Hong-Kong

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NG Vinci, « The decision to send local children to international schools in Hong-Kong: local parents’ o perspectives », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13 n 1, mars 2012, p. 121-136. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that investigates why some local Hong-Kong parents decide to give up local education and send their children to international schools in HongKong. Data were gathered from 25 parents across eight selected school sites grouped as four cases based on the continental origins of those international schools. […] Corée du Sud OH Jeongran, « High school diversification against educational equality: a critical analysis of neoliberal o education reform in South Korea », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 12 n 3, septembre 2011, p. 381-392. Recent reforms of high school education in Korea have focused on transforming the uniform and standardized system into a deregulated and diversified system that has an emphasis on school choice and competition. Situating the high school diversification policy in the context of the recent controversy of the neoliberal educational reform, this study argues that school diversification in Korea is deeply impaired and unfulfilled, such as in situations in which the school differentiation and elite high school credentials struggle are reinforced by the peculiar nature of the Korean educational market, namely the hakbul-based society and the development of private educational markets. Inde OHARA Yuki, « Examining the legitimacy of unrecognised low-fee private schools in India: comparing different perspectives », Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, vol. 42 o n 1, 2012, p. 69-90. Studies to date show how low-fee private (lfp) schools, including unrecognised ones, have gained practical legitimacy and continue to increase in number. However, little explanation is offered regarding the legal legitimacy of such unrecognised LFP schools. This paper intends to fill this gap by examining the legal legitimacy of unrecognised schools in delhi whose actual existence was challenged by the delhi high court and the right to education act, 2009. The paper also illustrates the practical legitimacy of unrecognised schools by comparing perspectives of different actors (the government, NGOs and managers, teachers and parents at nine unrecognised schools in Delhi) based primarily on the author’s interviews with these actors. Malaisie OTHMAN Azam, RUSLAN Norbaiduri, AHMAD Ismail Sheikh, « Intercultural communication in the Malaysian Vision Schools: implications for the management and leadership in a multicultural primary school », Management in Education, 2012, vol. 26, n° 4, p. 199-206. This article discusses intercultural communication in Vision Schools in Malaysia. It also elaborates the extent to which the Vision Schools foster racial interaction across the three major ethnic groups: Malays, Chinese, and Indians. A total of 887 primary school students were surveyed across the Vision Schools. It was found that the intercultural communication in the Vision Schools had triggered intercultural understanding and awareness of cultural diversity in the schools. The dynamics of intercultural interaction were, however, more profound in the national school compared to the other two vernacular schools (Chinese and Tamil national-type schools). […] Corée du Sud PARK Hyunjoon, BYUN Soo-yong, KIM Kyung-keun, « Parental Involvement and Students’ Cognitive Outcomes in Korea Focusing on Private Tutoring », Sociology of Education, vol. 84 no 1, janvier 2011, p. 3-22. Studies of parental involvement and children’s education in a variety of contexts can provide valuable insights into how the relationships between parental involvement and student outcomes depend upon specific local contexts of family and education. Korean education is distinctive with its high prevalence of private tutoring, which not only imposes an economic burden on parents but also requires parents’ time and efforts to select the best kind of private tutoring for their children and to keep track of their academic progress by interacting with private tutors. […] Multivariate analysis shows that parents’ efforts in selecting and monitoring private tutoring are significantly associated with increased math and English test scores. Features of Korean education in which private tutoring becomes an important strategy for parents to enhance children’s education are described, and the broader implications of the findings, beyond the local context, are discussed.

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Inde RAO Nitya, « Aspiring for distinction: gendered educational choices in an Indian village », Compare: A o Journal of Comparative and International Education, vol. 40 n 2, 2010, p. 167-183 . Schooling is not a benign process, rather the choice of schooling is often an opportunity for marginalised groups to creatively express particular sets of values in an attempt to gain distinction. Educational attainments carry the potential to open up a range of employment opportunities, but even if these options fail due to structural constraints, particular types of schooling are socially valued for the lifestyles, culture and values they inculcate. This paper, based on field research in Jharkhand, India, explores how people of different social categories make educational choices, focusing particularly on the gendered nature of both their aspirations and strategies for gaining distinction. The experience of state‐run schooling is compared to private (including mission) education, both in the locality and at a distance, the latter often perceived to provide higher‐quality English education by both parents and children. Chine SHI Qi, LEUWERKE Wade C., « Examination of Chinese homeroom teachers’ performance of o professional school counselors’ activities », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 11 n 4, décembre 2010, p. 515-523. Chinese homeroom teachers’ performance of professional school counselor activities was explored. A total of 109 homeroom teachers in Beijing and Harbin, China reported their performance of 68 different school counseling activities as part of their regular actions as a homeroom teacher. Results found that on average homeroom teachers performed a wide variety of counseling tasks and together almost all tasks were performed by homeroom teachers. Further, participants reported frequently providing individual counseling to students on a range of concerns. [...] Corée du Sud, Philippines, Taïwan SONG Kyoung-Oh, PARK Hyun-Jeong, SANG Kyong-Ah, « A cross-national analysis of the studentand school-level factors affecting the demand for private tutoring », Asia Pacific Education Review, o vol. 14 n 2, juin 2013, p. 125-139. Private tutoring has become a worldwide phenomenon, yet there is little empirical evidence for the main factors leading the demand for private tutoring across nations. Using data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study of 2003, this study classified the countries into four different groups according to the proportion of student participation in private tutoring and student achievement. Then, the study explored student- and school-level factors influencing the demand for private tutoring. […] SOUTHGATE Darby E., « Family Capital: a Determinant of Supplementary Education in 17 Nations », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 22 no, novembre 2013, p. 245-258. The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of family capital on the use of supplementary education. […] Using logistic regression, it examines family-level determinants – SES, family structure, culture, educational aspirations, language, parental level of education and occupational prestige, and gender – among 17 nations, grouped by level of intensity. Families with high levels of cultural capital are most likely to purchase supplementary education. This finding is interpreted as supporting the notion that family choice of supplementary education is a social reproduction mechanism in education. […] Malaisie SUA Tan Yao, « Democratization of secondary education in Malaysia: attitudes towards schooling and educational aspirations », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 31 no 1, 2011, p. 1-18. As a consequence of the democratization of secondary education in Malaysia beginning in the 1990s, many students who do not have academic credentials are allowed to progress to upper secondary education. This study examines the attitudes of these students towards two important aspects of schooling – namely, learning and examinations, as well as their educational aspirations – to assess the extent to which they have fulfilled the aims of the democratization of secondary education, among which is to produce more highly trained and well-educated manpower. […] The attitudes of the students towards learning and examinations as well as their levels of educational aspirations were generally found to be wanting regardless of their background. This study has revealed the internal contradiction of the democratization of secondary education in Malaysia. […]

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Malaisie SUA Tan Yao, NGAH Kamarudin, DARIT Sezali Md., « Parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns: The case of Malay students in Chinese primary schools o in Malaysia », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 33 n 4, juillet 2013, p. 325336. This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. […]. Parental expectations for their children's learning and academic outcomes emerge as the dominant factor influencing Malay enrollment in Chinese primary schools. Unfortunately, the Malay students are unable to meet these high expectations due to learning difficulties that stem from the lack of proficiency in the Chinese-medium of instruction, despite intervening measures by the school authorities. Their learning difficulties are also compounded by the lack of parental inputs as well as the limited use of code-switching by teachers. Meanwhile, the fostering of inter-ethnic friendships is impeded by ethnic differences, the rise of Islamic awareness and the increased numerical size of Malay students. […] Inde SUCHARITA V., « Negotiating between family, peers and school: understanding the world of government school and private school students », Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, vol. 44 no 3, 2014, p. 379-393. The present paper, based on an ethnographic study of a government school and a low-cost private school in Andhra Pradesh, India, argues that the students of a government school and a private school have two different worlds and are socialised differently. As children progress from childhood to adolescence, the transition is accompanied by increased responsibilities, cognitive maturity and behavioural changes. At home, socio-economic status, parental educational levels, family atmosphere and household survival strategies influence the way children perceive the world. At school, teachers and peer-group relationships play a cardinal role in moulding children differently. However, family, peers and school are not distinct arenas, but inter-related, and together contribute in shaping the child. Inde SUJATHA K., GEETHA Rani, Development of secondary education in India: access, participation, delivery mechanism and financing, Shipra Publications, 2011. The book examines the development of secondary education encompassing different aspects likeaccess, participation, the trends in expansion, delivery mechanism-role of government andprivate providers, gender and equity perspectives and financing of secondary education in India.One of the unique features of this book includes analysis of different aspects of secondaryeducation in a comparative perspective at all India, inter-state, inter-district and that of the casestudy schools. Further the present study examines extensively development of secondary education in four states i.e., Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh which areat varying levels of educational and economic development. Inde SUJATHA K., GEETHA Rani, National University of Educational Planning and Administration (India), Management of secondary education in India: quality, performance and administration, Shipra Publications/New Delhi, 2011. The present book examines quality, performance and administration of secondary education by examining availability of infrastructure facilities for secondary schools, extent of transition, drop-outs and retention. The book also examines performance of students in public examinations and the extent and nature of private tuition. A range of management aspects of secondary education including administrative structures, inspection and supervision, planning and management of curriculum and textbooks and teacher management are also elucidated in the book. Taïwan SUNG Yao-Ting, TSENG Fen-Lan, KUO Nien-Ping, CHANG Tien-Ying, CHIOU Jia-Min, « Evaluating the effects of programs for reducing achievement gaps: a case study in Taiwan », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 15 no 1, mars 2014, p. 99-113. Considering that achievement gaps have become a serious educational problem worldwide, the Ministry of Education in Taiwan has been addressing a series of policies to reduce achievement gaps,

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but the effect of these policies has not yet been carefully examined. Therefore, the present study investigated current educational policies, achievement gap phenomenon, and its changing trends in the use of national standardized tests in Taiwan and evaluated the degree to which these policies are reducing the achievement gaps among Taiwanese students. […] Malaisie TAN Yao Sua, SANTHIRAM R., The education of ethnic minorities: the case of the Malaysian Chinese, Strategic Information and Research Development Centre/Petaling Jaya, 2010, 185 p. Two chapters on general issues and dilemmas of minority education in plural societies are followed by detailed case study of the role education of the substantial Chinese minority in Malaysia and the discussion of the country's educational history. Among the subjects then explored are: the ideas, and ideals of Chinese educationists who support and promote a complete system of Chinese education in Malaysia; national policies of transfer into national (Malay medium) schools at secondary level and their often negative impact; political, economic, and emotional aspects of mother tongue policy implementation; and finally a considered view of the national needs. Taïwan TSAI Chun-Li, « Peer effects on academic cheating among high school students in Taiwan », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13 no 1, mars 2012, p. 147-155. Although academic cheating has been found to be a common phenomenon in high schools, few studies investigate how peers influence individual cheating behavior among high school students. In this paper, we estimate the cross-gender and intra-gender interaction effects on academic cheating among high school students in Taiwan. […]. VENTURA Alexandre, JANG Sunhwa, « Private tutoring through the internet: globalization and offshoring », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 11 no 1, mars 2010, p. 59-68. The private tutoring industry has come forward as the third great sector of education. The common sense representation about private tutoring is changing. The growing search for supplementary educational support services and the technological innovation have created a new paradigm. This paper focuses on one of the most interesting faces of this new phenomenon: the rise of private tutoring through the internet. The very promising market is considered by some analysts as a true explosion on the offer and demand levels. Many families are feeling increasingly unable to provide their children the “extra help” they need to meet the requirements of further steps in the education system. [...]. Inde WOODHEAD Martin, FROST Melanie, JAMES Zoe, « Does growth in private schooling contribute to Education for All? Evidence from a longitudinal, two cohort study in Andhra Pradesh, India », o International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 33 n 1, janvier 2013, p. 65-73. This paper informs debates about the potential role for low-fee private schooling in achieving Education for All goals in India. It reports Young Lives’ longitudinal data for two cohorts (2906 children) in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Eight year olds uptake of private schooling increased from 24 per cent (children born in 1994–5) to 44 per cent (children born in 2001–2). Children from rural areas, lower socioeconomic backgrounds and girls continue to be under represented. While some access gaps decreased, the gender gap seems to be widening. Evidence on risks to equity strengthen the case for an effectively regulated private sector, along with reforms to government sector schools. Hong-Kong ZHAN Shengli, BRAY Mark, WANG Dan, LYKINS Chad, KWO Ora, « The effectiveness of private tutoring: students’ perceptions in comparison with mainstream schooling in Hong-Kong », Asia Pacific o Education Review, vol. 14 n 4, décembre 2013, p. 495-509. This paper examines Hong-Kong students’ perceptions on the effectiveness of private supplementary tutoring relative to mainstream schooling. Drawing on survey and interview data, it shows that large proportions of secondary school students receive private tutoring. Students generally perceive private tutoring and private tutors to be more effective in the provision of examination support compared with mainstream schooling and teachers. However, perceptions vary according to students’ self-reported academic levels and motives for taking private tutoring. The operations of the parallel sector of private tutoring have significant implications for the nature of schooling and therefore need to be considered

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by teachers and school administrators. The Hong-Kong data contribute to the international analysis of private tutoring and add a significant component to the wider conceptual literature. Chine ZHANG Wei, BRAY Mark, « Researching Supplementary Education: Plans, Realities, and Lessons o from Fieldwork in China », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 22 n , novembre 2013, p. 67-94. The chapter highlights some of the challenges of research on supplementary education, and indicates ways in which the challenges were tackled in one particular study on Chongqing Municipality, China. The Chongqing research investigated the determinants of demand for shadow education by Grade 9 students, using a mixed-methods design. A questionnaire was used to collect data from students and parents on various background details and on the nature of the tutoring that they or their children had received. Interviews of a smaller number of respondents provided qualitative data that supplemented and illuminated the quantitative responses. […]

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Atelier 6. Existence et influence de modèles asiatiques Workshop 6. The existence and influence of Asian models Inde BAJAJ Monisha, « From “time pass” to transformative force: School-based human rights education in Tamil Nadu, India », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 32 no 1, janvier 2012, p. 72-80. This article presents data collected at the level of practice to highlight one non-governmental organization's approach to human rights education (HRE) and how household-, school-, and community-level factors mediated student impact. Findings suggest that a variety of factors at the three levels contribute to the program's successful implementation in government schools serving marginalized students (where most HRE programs are in operation in India today). These responses emerge along a continuum from ‘time pass’—a commonly used term in India for anything that does not directly contribute to greater performance on high-stakes exams—to ‘transformative force’, wherein students internalize knowledge and values related to human rights and take action based on it. […] Indonésie BANDUR Agustinus, « School-based management developments and partnership: Evidence from o Indonesia », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 32 n 2, mars 2012, p. 316328. School-based management (SBM) with devolution of authority and responsibility to school level decision-makers has become the most prominent feature of public school management systems in most countries around the world. This article provides the global trends and current developments in SBM in Indonesia with an emphasis on how SBM has created partnership and participatory decisionmaking processes in school level. The data reported here are on the basis of an empirical survey involving 504 school council members from Ngada Flores followed by 42 interviews with all relevant stakeholders. Indonésie Banque mondiale, CHEN Dandan, School-based management school decision-making and education outcomes in Indonesian primary schools, The World Bank/East Asia and Pacific Region, 2011, 37 p. Retrieved from: http://goo.gl/BZIY0x This paper examines the key aspects of the practices of school-based management in Indonesia, and its effect on education quality. Using a conceptual framework of an accountability system of public service delivery, the paper explores the relations among Indonesian parents, school committees, schools, and government education supervisory bodies from three tenets: participation and voice; autonomy; and accountability. Chine, Taïwan CHAI Ching Sing, DENG Feng, TSAI Chin-Chung, « A comparison of scientific epistemological views between mainland China and Taiwan high school students », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13 o n 1, mars 2012, p. 17-26. This study investigates the similarities and differences between high school students from Taiwan and China in terms of their scientific epistemological views. In addition, the effects of age and gender on scientific epistemological views were also examined. The results indicate that the students from these two localities, which signify two similar yet different cultures, are substantially different in five out of the six dimensions. Age and gender were also found to have significant effects in some dimensions. Implications for future research were discussed at the end of the paper. CHAN Philip Wing Keung (ed.), Asia Pacific education: diversity, challenges and changes, Monash University Publishing/Clayton, 2012, 282 p. Offers Eastern-oriented perspectives on teacher education ; parent participation ; government with drawal; textbook content ; uses of technology ; challenges faced by migrating families & tertiary students. Highlights issues of equity, identity and social justice, dialogue between social theories, referencing East and West.

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Chine Shanghai, Hong-Kong CHENG Kai-Ming, « Shanghai and Hong-Kong: Two distinct examples of education reform in China”. In OCDE (Ed), Stronger performers and successfulperformers in education: Lessons from PISA for the United States, OCDE/Paris, p. 83-115. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/countries/hongkongchina/46581016.pdf This chapter looks at how China has made rapid progress, taking Shanghai and Hong-Kong as examples of innovation. The main lessons include the government’s abandonment of a system built around “key schools” for a small elite and its development of a more inclusive system in which all students are expected to perform at high levels; greatly raising teacher pay and upgrading teacher standards and teacher education; reducing the emphasis on rote learning and increasing the emphasis on deep understanding, the ability to apply knowledge to solving new problems and the ability to think creatively. All of these are reflected in deep reforms to the curriculum and examinations. These changes have been accompanied by greater curricular choice for students and more latitude for local authorities to decide on examination content, which in turn is loosening the constraints on curriculum and instruction. Hong-Kong CHENG Eric C. K., « An examination of the predictive relationships of self-evaluation capacity and staff competency on strategic planning in Hong-Kong aided secondary schools », Educational o Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 10 n 3, octobre 2011, p. 211-223. This article aims to examine the predictive relationships of self-evaluation capacity and staff competency on the effect of strategic planning in aided secondary schools in Hong-Kong. A quantitative questionnaire survey was compiled to collect data from principals of the participating schools. […] The capacity of self-evaluation mechanisms and staff competency are identified as predictive factors for effective strategic planning. An effective quality assurance (QA) mechanism could support the sustainable development of school organization. School administrators could embed self-evaluation mechanisms into strategic planning and provide staff development to improve the QA systems in their schools. Indonésie CHU-CHANG Mae, SHAEFFER Sheldon, AL-SAMARRAI Samer, RAGATZ Andrew B, DE REE Joppe, Teacher reform in Indonesia: the role of politics and evidence in policy making, World Bank Group/Washington DC, 2014, 259 p. Retrieved from: http://goo.gl/isI9Dq The book features an analysis of teacher reform in Indonesia, which entailed a doubling of teacher salaries upon certification. It provides a description of the political economy context in which the reform was developed and implemented and an analysis of the impact of the reform on teacher knowledge, skills, and student outcomes. It includes a randomized control trial over time with data representative of approximately 50 percent of the country's primary and junior secondary schools and a time-on-task analysis of a representative sample of classroom teaching practices linked to the TIMSS. Chine CRAVENS Xiu Chen, LIU Yarong, GROGAN Margaret, « Understanding the Chinese Superintendency o in the Context of Quality-Oriented Education », Comparative Education Review, vol. 56 n 2, mai 2012, p. 270-299. The implementation of national educational reform in China calls for newer and stronger school administration. Recognizing the need to establish a knowledge base for leadership development, we employ a set of existing US professional standards for educational leaders as a frame of reference to unpack the complex role of Chinese superintendents. Using data collected from two surveys administered to more than 200 Chinese superintendents in 2007, we find that many indicators of leadership considered essential in the United States are also viewed as necessary for effective superintendency in China. Feedback from the superintendents also points out gaps between what is perceived as important and what is in practice. […]

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Japon DECOKER Gary, BJORK Christopher, Japanese education in an era of globalization: culture, politics, and equity, Teachers college press/New York, 2013, 224 p. This volume documents the significant changes that have occurred in Japanese schools since the collapse of that nation’s economic bubble. Before the recession, Japan was the country that most educational reformers sought to emulate due to its students’ performance on standardized tests. Now, however, a different and more complicated picture of the Japanese education system emerges. This book places Japanese education in a global context, with particular attention given to how their education system is responding to changing expectations and pressures that emerge from rapid social change. Chapters written by respected scholars examine issues related to equality, academic achievement, privatization, population diversity, societal expectations, and the influence of the media, parents, and political movements. Indonésie FITRIAH Amaliah, SUMINTONO Bambang, SUBEKTI Nanang Bagus, HASSAN Zainudin, « A different result of community participation in education: an Indonesian case study of parental o participation in public primary schools », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 14 n 4, décembre 2013, p. 483-493. Parental participation in school management is regarded as a good thing according to the rationale that local people know better and are able to be more responsive to their own needs. However, little is understood about the implications of the School Operational Support policy for community participation in education. This study investigated parental participation in the context of education decentralisation with regard to the changing situation in which the Indonesian government provides sufficient funds for school operational costs. […]. The study found that prior to the Free School Program, parental participation was limited to parents’ financial contribution and associated matters. However, since school was made free, parents’ involvement in school budgeting has become very limited; they are no longer engaged in the planning of allocations, and neither they nor the school committees are able to make inputs into decision making; even the functions of the school committees are limited to rubber stamping the school budget. Indonésie GRANGE Philippe, « La renaissance du système éducatif indonésien », Repères - Campus France, n° 16, octobre 2012, 6 p. Disponible sur : http://ressources.campusfrance.org/publi_institu/agence_cf/reperes/fr/reperes_16_fr.pdf L'auteur présente un historique du système éducatif indonésien, la situation actuelle de l'éducation et observe plus particulièrement l'évolution de l'enseignement supérieur et la mobilité étudiante. Chine, Inde, Indonésie GRAVE Jean-Marc de (dir.), Dimensions formelle et non formelle de l'éducation en Asie orientale : socialisation et rapport au contenu d'apprentissage, Sociétés contemporaines, Publications de l'Université de Provence/Aix-en-Provence, 2012, 257 p. Comment l'institution scolaire s'insère-t-elle dans un contexte plus englobant ? En quoi les processus de formalisation liés à l'introduction de l'école modifient-ils - ou non - les formes locales de transmission et les valeurs ? Inversement, comment les systèmes standardisés s'enrichissent des pratiques et des savoirs locaux ? Ces questions sont abordées sous l'angle ethnographique et anthropologique dans huit études touchant quatre pays asiatiques : l'Inde, la Chine, l'Indonésie, la Thaïlande, pays différents par l'histoire, les traditions, la forme des institutions, le poids de l'État. La grande diversité ethnique et culturelle de la région donne naissance à un dialogue entre les savoirs traditionnels et la scolarisation organisée par les États. Chine, Corée du Sud, Hong Kong, Japon, Taïwan HSIEH Pei-Tseng Jenny, Education in East Asia, Bloomsbury Academic/London, 2013, 336 p. Education in East Asia is a comprehensive critical reference guide to education in the region. With chapters written by an international team of leading regional education experts, the book explores the education systems of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Macao, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan, covering local regional developments in each country as well as recent reforms and global contexts. Including a comparative introduction to the issues facing education in the region as a whole

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and guides to available online datasets, this handbook will be an essential reference for researchers, scholars, international agencies and policy-makers at all levels. Indonésie HOON Chang-Yau, « Mapping ‘Chinese’ Christian schools in Indonesia: ethnicity, class and religion », o Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 12 n 3, septembre 2011, p. 403-411. Schools are not “innocent” sites of cultural transmission. They play an active and significant role in transmitting values and inculcating culture. Schools also serve as a site for the maintenance of boundaries and for the construction of identities. Previous studies have recognized the relationship between education and identity. Building on existing literature, this study examines the ways in which Christian schools can be a site for the construction and maintenance of religious, ethnic and class identities of the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia. The study surveys four prestigious “Chinese” Christian schools in Jakarta. Through a brief but thorough profiling of the schools, the study explores the complexity of and identifies issues associated to religion, ethnicity and class, in relations to ChineseIndonesians and the Indonesian society at large. HUGONNIER Bernard, Le déclin de l’école républicaine, Editions du Net, 2013, 144 p. La France souvent se réclame de l'école républicaine. La réalité est tout autre comme a pu le montrer cet ouvrage : l’accès à l’école n’est pas encore universelle ; l’accès égal aux moyens éducatifs est loin d’être parfait ; l’accès à une école d’égale qualité pour tous ne prévaut pas et l’accès à l’égalité des chances est totalement éloigné de la réalité. Dans le même temps l’échec et l’abandon scolaires ne reculent plus et le nombre des élèves en difficulté, qui concernent d’abord la partie la plus déshéritée de la population, ne diminue pas. Après avoir faut un constat de la situation, cet ouvrage fait le point sur les solutions possibles Taïwan KUAN Ping-Yin, « Effects of Cram Schooling on Mathematics Performance: Evidence from Junior High o Students in Taiwan », Comparative Education Review, vol. 55 n 3, août 2011, p. 342-368 . Cram schooling is believed by students and their parents to have positive effects on learning achievement in Taiwan. Using two waves of panel data gathered by the Taiwan Education Panel Study (TEPS) in 2001 and 2003 and the method of propensity score matching (PSM), the present research found that the average treatment effect for participants of mathematics cramming programs is fairly small. Moreover, the PSM analysis revealed that propensity to attend cram school, higher parental education level, and prior mathematics ability are all negatively related to effects of mathematics cramming. Hong-Kong KUAH-PEARCE Khun Eng, FONG Yiu-Chak, « Identity and sense of belonging in post-colonial o education in Hong-Kong », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 30 n 4, 2010, p. 433-448. This paper explores the construction of local and national identities among secondary school students in post-colonial Hong-Kong. As a Chinese society that has undergone a prolonged period of British colonial rule, the reunification of capitalist Hong-Kong with the motherland under socialism in 1997 has set the context for a negotiation of identities. It has been revealed that the Government of the HongKong Special Administrative Region has tried to foster a stronger sense of national identity and a sense of belonging among the younger generations through its education reform measures in the new millennium. Nation-building is part and parcel of the reform, although it is being interpreted and implemented diversely by local officials, school principals and teachers. […] Corée du Sud ILON Lynn, « Can education equality trickle-down to economic growth? The case of Korea », Asia o Pacific Education Review, vol. 12 n 4, décembre 2011, p. 653-663. Education equality is generally neglected in the literature that investigates education’s contribution to economic growth. This paper examines the case of Korea where economic growth, education equality (as measured by years of schooling), and educational quality have all been on the rise for many decades. Using time series data on schooling for adults of 25–85 years, a measure of education equality is calculated. Education equality is shown to be increasing through the years. A CobbDouglas production function for the economy was estimated using both “years of schooling” and

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“education equality” measures. When both measures are included, education equality is a strong predictor of economic growth. Chine, Hong Kong, Singapour, Taïwan LEE John Chi-Kin,CALDWELL Brian J., Changing Schools in an Era of Globalization, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011, 234 p. This volume discusses education within the context of globalization and examines what is occurring in schools and systems of education in the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Chinese Taipei, Singapore, and Australia. Closer examination of recent developments and current trends reveal the same turbulence and a range of common issues in areas such as assessment, curriculum, leadership, management of change, pedagogy, policy, professional capacity and technology. This volume demonstrates the commonalities and differences and offers tremendous insight into the way things are done in places where student achievement is high but there is also a sense of urgency in continuing an agenda of change. Corée du Sud LEE Jungyoon, YU Heekeun, CHOI Sumi, « The influences of parental acceptance and parental control on school adjustment and academic achievement for South Korean children: the mediation role o of self-regulation », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13 n 2, juin 2012, p. 227-237. This study examined the effects of parental acceptance, psychological control, and behavioral control on children’s school adjustment and academic achievement, as well as the possible mediation effect of children’s self-regulation in those processes. To do so, we examined 388 upper-level elementary school students (mean age = 11.38 years) in South Korea. In addition, the study examined whether the influences of parental psychological and behavioral control on children’s school outcomes were consistent between Western and East Asian cultures. Children reported on perceived parental acceptance, psychological control, behavioral control, self-regulation, and their own school adjustment and academic achievement. The results showed that parental acceptance, psychological control, and behavioral control were not directly related to children’s school outcomes. […] Corée du Sud LEE Sang Kil, YI Hyun Sook, « Family systems as predictors of career attitude maturity for Korean o high school students », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 11 n 2, juin 2010, p. 141-150. This study examined the relationships between family systems and high school students’ career development. Family adaptability and family cohesion were considered as indicators of family function, and career attitude maturity was conceptualized as a representative factor explaining adolescents’ career development. A total of 634 high school students participated in this study. Overall, the results showed that family adaptability and family cohesion were both significant predictors of tenth graders’ career attitude maturity. The effects of parents’ educational backgrounds on career attitude maturity were negligible. However, the relationships were inconsistent across gender. For female students, family cohesion was a more influential predictor of career attitude maturity than family adaptability, while the opposite pattern was observed for the male students. Chine, Taïwan LIN Tzung-Jin, DENG Feng, CHAI Ching Sing, TSAI Chin-Chung, « High school students’ scientific epistemological beliefs, motivation in learning science, and their relationships: A comparative study o within the Chinese culture », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 33 n 1, janvier 2013, p. 37-47. This study explored the differences in high school students’ scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students’ SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone to believe that scientific reality is invented, the development of scientific knowledge is culture-dependent, and scientific knowledge is always changing and its status is tentative than the Chinese students were. Yet, the Taiwanese students perceived higher test anxiety in science than the Chinese students did. Moreover, Chinese students who have a stronger belief that science knowledge is changing and tentative are more likely to perceive themselves as having higher test anxiety in science. The results suggest that the role of culture might have an impact on students’ SEBs and their MLS.

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Indonésie LUSCHEI Thomas F., ZUBAIDAH Ida, « Teacher training and transitions in rural Indonesian schools: a o case study of Bogor, West Java », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 32 n 3, 2012, p. 333-350 As one of the world's largest and most diverse countries, Indonesia faces an enormous challenge as it seeks to upgrade the skills and knowledge of its widespread primary teacher workforce. This challenge is even more acute in remote rural areas, where practising teachers require specialized training to work in classrooms with children of different ages and grades. Yet, due to their remote locations, these teachers have little access to training opportunities, and teacher educators have few opportunities to assess their needs. To explore training needs and instructional strategies employed by rural teachers, we conducted a case study of nine rural schools in the district of Bogor, West Java. We interviewed headmasters and teachers in these schools, instructors at a major Indonesian university, and a district official. We found that while rural teachers generally consider their training to be helpful, they receive little guidance to help them manage and teach large multigrade classes. At the same time, a growing number of “contract teachers” in these schools has reduced the number of multigrade classrooms while increasing the need for training of novice teachers in rural schools. Chine - Shanghai, Corée du Sud, Hong-Kong, Japon, Singapour, Taïwan MA Xin, JONG Cindy Jong, YUAN Jing, « Exploring Reasons for the East Asian Success in PISA », In MEYER Heinz-Dieter, BENAVOT Aaron, Pisa power and policy: the emergence of global educational governance, Symposium Books/Oxford, 2013, p. 225-245. Pakistan, Singapour, Indonesie MERRY Michael S., MILLIGAN Jeffrey Ayala, Citizenship, identity, and education in Muslim communities: essays on attachment and obligation, Palgrave Macmillan/New York, 2010, 232 p. This volume represents a rich multi-disciplinary contribution to an expanding literature on citizenship, identity, and education in a variety of majority and minority Muslim communities. Among its aims is to establish the theoretical possibility of a philosophically and doctrinally plausible overlapping consensus between Islam and democracy, to identify respect for difference as one critical component of that overlapping consensus, and to examine a range of Islamic educational practices in various sociohistorical contexts. Accordingly, each of these essays offers important insights into the various ways one may identify with, and participate in, different democratic and democratizing societies to which Muslims belong. Singapour NG Pak Tee, « Singapore's response to the global war for talent: Politics and education », o International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 31 n 3, mai 2011, p. 262-268. This paper describes and analyses how Singapore engages in the global war for talent. The paper discusses how Singapore demonstrates a Foucauldian perspective of ‘governmentality’ in trying to mould citizens into a way of thinking that is geared suitably to an engagement in a global talent war. It first examines the social, political and economic thinking of the government in responding to the talent war. It then analyses more deeply the initiatives in the education system to support the national strategy in competing globally for talent. It also discusses the challenges ahead for Singapore in this talent war. Singapour NG Pak Tee, « Mentoring and coaching educators in the Singapore education system », International o Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 1 n 1, mars 2012, p. 24-35. The purpose of this paper is to examine the practice of mentoring and coaching in the Singapore education system, to show the difference in philosophy in which these two concepts have been applied and to discuss the issues and challenges involved in their implementation. This paper reviews the mentoring and coaching systems in Singapore through literature review and a critical analysis of the mentoring and coaching philosophies and schemes for the different levels of educators. This paper shows that mentoring and coaching are implemented in many areas of the professional development of educators in Singapore. These include mentoring for trainee teachers, beginning teachers, training school leaders and beginning school leaders; and coaching in the performance management system of all teachers and school leaders. However, there are inherent tensions in having an appraisal connotation in some mentoring and coaching platforms in Singapore and in encouraging critical reflective learning and innovation in mentoring and coaching.

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Singapour NG Pak Tee, « The Evolution and Nature of School Accountability in the Singapore Education o System », Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, vol. 22 n 4, novembre 2010, p. 275-292. This paper describes and examines the nature and evolution of school accountability in the Singapore Education System. In particular, the different facets of school accountability are examined through a theoretical framework comprising four relatively distinct concepts of accountability as performance reporting; as a technical process; as a political process; and as an institutional process. This paper also examines the issues and challenges faced by schools as they respond to the demands of school accountability.| Japon OBA Jun, L'organisation du système éducatif japonais 2013, Institut de recherche pour l'enseignement supérieur/Hiroshima, 2014, 104 p. Disponible sur : http://home.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/oba/docs/systeme_educatif_japonais2013.pdf L'auteur propose une mise à jour remaniée et enrichie de sa monographie consacrée au système éducatif japonais. Il en offre un panorama complet avec une analyse des dernières réformes mises en place. Après un premier chapitre historique sur la politique éducative, l'auteur présente les différents niveaux du système éducatif japonais. D'autres chapitres sont consacrés à la vie des élèves et des étudiants ainsi qu'à l'administration et au financement du système scolaire. Corée du Sud, Chine, Japon OSBORNE Michael, KEARNS Peter, YANG Jin (eds), « Learning cities : developing inclusive prosperous and sustainable urban communities : special issue », International review of education, vol. 59, n° 4, septembre 2013, p. 409-538. Retrieved from: http://goo.gl/LRd72P This special issue has been stimulated by the initiative of the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in developing the International Platform of Learning Cities (IPLC). The modern concept of a learning city/region originated from that of a "learning society". A key question for the future of learning cities is the extent to which the learning city strategy can serve as a vehicle for cities to address these issues in a strategic way that builds inclusive, sustainable cities, able to adapt to 21st-century conditions. Several papers in this issue provide insights into this question, although from different perspectives: educating cities in Latin America, learning cities in East Asia : Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, the role of building learning cities in the rejuvenation of Africa and building child friendly cities in the MENA region.[…] Hong-Kong OU Dongshu, « Education for all: quasi-experimental estimates of the impacts of compulsory primary o education in Hong-Kong », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 14 n 3, septembre 2013, p. 267283. This paper examines the causal impacts of Hong-Kong’s 1971 policy of free compulsory education on students’ educational attainment. Using a regression discontinuity method and Hong-Kong Census data, this study compares children born just before and just after the month in which the compulsoryeducation law came into effect. The results show that the law reduces approximately 10 percent of the dropout probability by age 12 and 8 percent of the dropout probability by age 15. The effect is substantial considering that approximately 90 percent of primary-school-age children were already in school in Hong-Kong when the policy was implemented. The policy has larger impacts for socially and economically disadvantaged children, and the law also increases their probability of obtaining an education beyond middle school. Hong-Kong PHILLIPSON Sivanes, PHILLIPSON Shane N., « Children’s cognitive ability and their academic achievement: the mediation effects of parental expectations », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. o 13 n 3, septembre 2012, p. 495-508. It is generally accepted that cognitive ability predicts academic achievement, and that parental involvement and expectations form part of the constellation of factors that predict their children’s academic achievement, particularly for families within the Chinese-heritage Cultures. Although a

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number of interactions between these parental factors have been proposed, the mediation effects of parental expectations on their children’s cognitive ability in predicting academic achievement are yet to be established. Data from 780 students from one primary school in Hong-Kong and their parents were used to generate structural equation models to test the hypothesis that parental affective factors, as indicated by parental home and school involvement, parental beliefs of their children’s ability and parental expectations of their children’s academic scores, mediate the effects of student IQ score in predicting school achievement in English, Chinese and Mathematics. […] Hong-Kong PUN Sydney S., « The politics of hope and cynicism in the realization of the vision of the 334 o education reform in Hong-Kong », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 14 n 1, mars 2013, p. 55-65. According to Fanny Law Fan Chiu-fun, the former Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower, the most significant education policy in recent years in Hong-Kong was undoubtedly the new academic structure commonly known as “334.” As schools, universities, and the community at large seemed to accept the new academic structure in principle, the areas of contention would mostly lie in the timing and details. Sparked by the suicides of two teachers, a wave of unprecedented protests and opposition against the government’s education policy followed, which led to the departure of the former Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower Fanny Law Fan Chiu-fun and the Secretary for Education and Manpower Arthur Li Kwok- cheung from the education portfolio. This situation suggests that something was wrong with the teachers’ working environment. […] Chine QI Tingting, « Moving Toward Decentralization? Changing Education Governance in China After o 1985 », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 15 n , décembre 2011, p. 19-41. This chapter integrates current Chinese education reform into the unique socioeconomic context of China in a transitional time and explores the complexity of education decentralization in China through an in-depth analysis on changes in education finance, administration, and curriculum development. […]. Previous studies, government documents, laws, and regulations related to the current wave of Chinese education reform are reviewed to capture a true picture of education decentralization in China. In investigating the background, actual actions, and motive of the current Chinese education reform, the chapter demonstrates that the on-going Chinese education reform is moving toward a centralized decentralization. Linking education with the unified national goal of economic modernization, the paradoxical mixture of centralization and decentralization is a strategic means to avoid loss of centralized control. […]

Chine, Inde RAO Nirmala, PEARSON Emma, TAPLIN Margaret, CHENG Kai-Ming, Teaching in primary schools in China and India, Routledge Research in International and Comparative Education, Routledge/Londres, 2013, 224 p. This book compares primary education in urban and rural China and India. It focuses on how the sociocultural context including educational policy, educators and parents’ beliefs, and the conditions under which teaching and learning occur shape classroom pedagogy and determine children’s attainment. This in-depth, authentic, comparative analysis of the two largest educational systems in the world is a must-read for scholars interested in the teaching and learning in these two rapidly developing Asian cultures. A common set of questions has been addressed in diverse contexts. The empirical work on which this book is based is most impressive – videotaping of mathematics and language lessons, interviews with parents and educators questionnaires with parents, teachers and children and tests of children’s mathematics attainment – and this done in 3 locations in China, 3 in India and 12 schools in total. Japon SABOURET Jean-François (coord.), « L'école au Japon : dossier », Cahiers pédagogiques, n° 479, février 2010, p. 47-58. Ce dossier vise à nuancer les stéréotypes, en l'occurence celui d'une école où les jeunes subiraient dès le plus jeune âge la pression de la réussite scolaire. Y sont également présentés les différences et les points communs dans les débats qui la traversent, notamment autour de l'égalité des chances ou de la définition du métier d'enseignant.

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Inde SENGUPTA Atanu, PAL Naibedya Prasun, « Assessing the primary schools—A multi-dimensional approach: A school level analysis based on Indian data », International Journal of Educational o Development, vol. 32 n 2, mars 2012, p. 264-272. Primary education is essential for the economic development in any country. Most studies give more emphasis to the final output (such as literacy, enrolment etc.) rather than the delivery of the entire primary education system. In this paper, we study the school level data from an Indian district, collected under the official DISE statistics. We use several indicators to capture the multi-dimensional aspects of primary school education system in India. Our analysis reveals serious discrepancies in deprivation, social and policy indicators that infringes upon efficiency in a negative way. Japon SHAND George, « Culture and the self: a comparison of attitudes to study among English and Japanese students in state secondary education », Compare: A Journal of Comparative and o International Education, vol. 43 n 6, 2013, p. 857-858. Japon SONOYAMA Daisuke, GAUTHIER Pierre-Louis, « Japon : dépenses d’éducation et inégalités o sociales », Revue internationale d’éducation de Sèvres, n 54, septembre 2013, p. 18-20 Indonésie SURATNO Tatang, KUNO H., « Lesson Study development in Asian countries. Focusing on ‘School Improvement Program’ in an Indonesian primary school », Aichi University of Education Journal, 2013, n° 1, p. 1-10. SURATNO Tatang. « Lesson Study as practice: An Indonesian elementary school experience », USChina Education Review, 2012, n° 7, p. 627-638. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED535483.pdf SYMACO Lorraine Pe, « Education and knowledge society in the Asia-Pacific », Asia Pacific Journal o of Education, vol. 33 n 2, juin 2013, p. 133-139. Japon TAKAYAMA Keita, « Exploring the interweaving of contrary currents: transnational policy enactment and path-dependent policy implementation in Australia and Japan », Comparative Education, vol. 48 o n 4, 2012, p. 505-523. This article explores the neo-institutional theory of global policy convergence, or ‘isomorphism’, by comparatively examining one of its most recent manifestations – the global diffusion of national standardised testing – in Australia and Japan. By understanding the particular configurations of national testing as being conditioned by both nations' institutional frameworks and historical legacies of education policy development, this study illuminates how the conditioning effects of these frameworks and legacies resulted in the divergent ways in which a policy model circulating at the transnational level became translated into assessment policies that are ‘simultaneously similar and different’. These findings are related to the concept of ‘path dependency’, emphasised in particular by political science and historical institutionalism.[…] Japon TAKAYAMA Keita, « Politics of Externalization in Reflexive Times: Reinventing Japanese Education o Reform Discourses through “Finnish PISA Success” », Comparative Education Review, vol. 54 n 1, février 2010, p. 51-75. Japon TAKAYAMA Keita, « Other Japanese educations and Japanese education otherwise », Asia Pacific o Journal of Education, vol. 31 n 3, 2011, p. 345-359 .

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Chine – Shanghai, Singapour TAN Charlene, « Framing Educational Success: A Comparative Study of Shanghai and Singapore », o Education, Knowledge & Economy: A Journal for Education and Social Enterprise, vol. 5 n 3, janvier 2011, p. 155-166. In the light of the global trends towards international assessment, inter-country comparison and policy convergence, this article critically discusses the contextual factors that influence educational success in Shanghai and Singapore. Focussing on the structural and cultural frames, this article maintains that the educational achievement in Shanghai and Singapore is due primarily to heavy governmental investment and intervention in education as evident in recent education reforms, coupled with the sociocultural values of a utilitarian and technocratic view of education and strong community support for academic excellence. This article further argues that the cultural frame has posed a challenge to the policymakers' vision to promote a more holistic, experiential and creative form of teaching and learning that goes beyond summative and written assessment. […] Singapour TAN Cheng Yong, « Theoretical discussion on forms of cultural capital in Singapore », Asia Pacific o Education Review, vol. 14 n 2, juin 2013, p. 103-112. This article is a theoretical discussion on five forms of cultural resources that constitute cultural capital for children in the meritocratic yet stratified society of Singapore. These five forms of cultural capital are namely ‘academic’ tastes and leisure preferences, use of Standard English, access to and dispositions toward information communication technology, acquisition of learning skills, and confidence/learning dispositions. They cover two important aspects of cultural capital—namely objectified and embodied components—that may vary in levels with social class and that mediate the influence of social class on children’s academic achievement. Equally importantly, the focus on one societal context—in this case, Singapore—recognizes the contextual specificities of cultural capital in form and consumption pattern among individuals. Corée du Sud, Indonésie, Japon, Taïwan THIEME Claudio, GIMÉNEZ Víctor, PRIOR Diego, « A comparative analysis of the efficiency of national education systems », Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13 no 1, mars 2012, p. 1-15. The present study assesses the performance of 54 participating countries in PISA 2006.[…] We find that European countries are characterized by weak management, the Americans (mainly Latin Americans) by a weak endowment of resources, and the Asians by a high level of heterogeneity. In particular, Asia combines countries with optimal systems (South Korea and Macao-China); countries with managerial problems (Hong Kong, China-Taipei, Japan and Israel); others where the main challenge is the weak endowment of resources (Jordan and Kyrgyzstan), and, finally, others where the main problem is in the long run since it concerns structural conditions of a socioeconomic and cultural nature (Turkey, Thailand, and Indonesia). Indonésie TOI Atsuko, « An empirical study of the effects of decentralization in Indonesian junior secondary o education », Educational Research for Policy and Practice, vol. 9 n 2, juin 2010, p. 107-125. Decentralization in the education system has become a trend in many developing countries. However, it is not a solution to the many problems in education faced by these countries. One of the adverse effects of decentralization is disparity between regions or schools in terms of educational achievement. This paper offers a justification for such a view by studying the case of the Indonesian education system. Data was collected from about 5,000 Sekolah Lanjutan Tingkat Pertama (SLTP) schools (junior secondary schools). […] The main finding of this research is that increase in the school budget improves the quality of the educational environment and leads to higher test scores and lower dropout rates. Such positive results, however, turned out to be less significant, and the relationship between factors became weaker, during the period after decentralization had started. This was particularly the case for the group of schools whose budget level was relatively small. […]

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Taïwan TSAI Wen-Tien, « An investigation of Taiwan's education regulations and policies for pursuing o environmental sustainability », International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 32 n 2, mars 2012, p. 359-365. With the rapid industrialization and economic development in the past decades, heavy environmental loads caused some serious environmental scenarios in Taiwan, an island country with a dense population and only limited natural resources. As a result, environmental education in Taiwan has been a leading tool to promote sustainable development since the 1990s. […] This paper presents the governmental regulations and policies for promoting environmental education in Taiwan. This article also analyzes the success of environmental education through cross-ministerial mechanisms and plans based on the current status of energy sustainability in the past two decades (1990–2009). In June 2011, the Environmental Education Act, which is aimed at upgrading environmental education and achieving sustainable development, will begin to be effective in Taiwan. […] Asie du Sud-est, Chine, Indonésie, Malaisie, Vietnam WELCH Anthony, « Different paths, one goal: Southeast Asia as knowledge society », Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 33 no 2, 2013, p.197-211. The article charts the extent to which selected societies of Southeast Asia can be seen as knowledge societies. Beginning from the premise that the global world of knowledge is changing from the former bipolar model of the West and the Rest, towards a more multi-polar world in which Asia figures more prominently, the analysis proceeds to use China, the most prominent example of this shift to the East, as a benchmark for Southeast Asia. […]. The five Southeast Asian states of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam are selected for analysis, revealing both a common intent of moving towards a knowledge society (often now more commonly expressed as a knowledge economy), but rather different outcomes, and knowledge profiles. Japon WILLIS David Blake, RAPPLEYE Jeremy, Reimagining Japanese education: borders, transfers, circulations, and the comparative, Oxford studies in comparative education, Symposium Books/Oxford, 2011, 288 p. Sparked by the confluence of accelerating domestic transformation and increasingly explicit impacts from ‘globalization’, the Japanese education system has undergone tremendous changes during the turbulence of the past decade. This volume, which brings together some of the foremost scholars in the field of Japanese education, analyzes these recent changes in ways that help us ‘reimagine’ Japan and Japanese educational change at this critical juncture. Rather than simply updating wellworn Western images of Japan and its educational system, the aim of the book is a much deeper critical rethinking of the outmoded paradigms and perspectives that have rendered the massive shifts that have taken place in Japan largely invisible to or forgotten by the outside world. This ‘reimagining’ thus restores Japan to its place as a key comparative link in the global conversation on education and lays out new pathways for comparative research and reflection. […] Japon YASUHIKO Jinnouchi, « Recrutement et autonomie des enseignants au Japon », Les dossiers des sciences de l'éducation, n° 27, 2012, p. 55-68. Le recrutement des enseignants titulaires dans le cadre du système éducatif obligatoire a connu d'importants changements au cours des soixante dernières années. A partir d'une analyse des transformations survenues dans le département de Tôkyô, l'auteur établit l'histoire d'un glissement progressif des modalités de contrôle qui passe de l'Etat avant-guerre à l'administration locale aprèsguerre puis à un marché "régulé" en théorie par la loi de l'offre et de la demande. Dans un contexte de réduction du nombre de postes, on observe une perte graduelle de l'influence des universités générales au profit de formations privées plus capables d'ajuster leur programme aux attendus des épreuves de recrutement. Japon YAMAMOTO Yoko, BRINTON Mary C., « Cultural Capital in East Asian Educational Systems The o Case of Japan », Sociology of Education, vol. 83 n 1, janvier 2010, p. 67-83. Cultural capital has been an important but often elusive concept in the study of educational processes and social class reproduction. The authors suggest that this is partly because a country’s educational system and ways of evaluating students at different educational transitions set the context for the

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mechanisms through which embodied and objectified cultural capital operate. Moreover, parents in some societies invest in children’s “shadow education” (extracurricular classes or tutoring) at key educational transitions, and it is not clear whether this replaces cultural capital or supplements it. The authors use data from Japan, a country whose educational system depends heavily but not exclusively on standardized examinations, to examine how cultural capital affects students’ progress at three points in the educational process that involve different relative emphasis on examinations and on teachers’ subjective judgment. In this way, the authors clarify the ways that embodied and objectified cultural capital exert effects on educational outcomes. Japon YOSHINO Asako, « The relationship between self-concept and achievement in TIMSS 2007 : a comparison between American and Japanese students », International review of education, vol. 58, n° 2, avril 2012, p. 199-219. Retrieved from: http://goo.gl/tgCxMa The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between eighth-grade students’ maths-related self-concepts and their achievements in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007. The students’ maths self-concept was compared with other variables, namely their mothers’education, their fathers’ education and the amount of books held in the students’ households. To investigate the potential role of culture, a comparison between American and Japanese students’ scores was also included. The findings demonstrated that students’ maths selfconcept was positively associated with their achievement both in the United States and Japan, but Japanese students, while having higher achievement, had a lower maths self-concept than American students. Maternal education, paternal education and the number of books at home were also found to be positively related to achievement. […]. Chine ZHANG Yuping, « Importance of Home Environment for Children's Schooling: From the Teacher's o Perspective », International Perspectives on Education and Society, vol. 15 n , décembre 2011, p. 237-265. It has long been established in educational stratification research that teachers play an important role in shaping children's school experience, which is closely associated with children's educational outcomes. Children's family background has been considered as one of the factors that may influence how teachers form their evaluations of children's behavior and academic competence, and their educational expectations for children. Going beyond the conventional modeling of using measures of the family's socioeconomic situation alone, this chapter incorporates the teachers' perceptions of the importance of children's family background into the examination of teachers' evaluations and expectations. Using a unique data from northwest China, this study provides a case study to highlight the importance of bringing teachers' perspectives into examining the relationship between children's family background and their educational outcomes. The analysis results reveal that teachers' perceptions of the importance of children's family background, above and beyond children's previous academic achievement and their family's actual socioeconomic situations, are closely associated with teachers' evaluations and expectations. […] Chine ZHAO Ningning, VALCKE Martin, DESOETE Annemie, VERHAEGHE JeanPierre, « The quadratic relationship between socioeconomic status and learning performance in China by multilevel analysis: Implications for policies to foster education equity », International Journal of Educational o Development, vol. 32 n 3, mai 2012, p. 412-422. The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between family socioeconomic status and mathematics performance on the base of a multi-level analysis involving a large sample of Chinese primary school students. A weak relationship is found between socioeconomic status and performance in the Chinese context. The relationship does not follow a linear, but a quadratic curve, implying that students from a disadvantaged family and higher socioeconomic background have a higher probability to attain higher mathematics scores. This can be explained on the basis of Chinese cultural beliefs about education, exams and social class mobility. Moreover, the aggregated socioeconomic status at the school level seems to moderate in the relation between individual SES and academic performance. This suggests that individuals from a disadvantaged family will achieve higher in the school with a higher family socioeconomic status than students who are enrolled in schools with a lower and average family socioeconomic status.

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Index auteurs Authors index

ADAMSON Bob, 3, 29 AGRAWAL Tushar, 37 AHMAD Ismail Sheikh, 69 AKIBA Motoko, 21 ALAM Mohd. Sanjeer, 21 AL-SAMARRAI Samer, 75 ALVIAR-MARTIN Theresa, 21 ANG Li Li, 27 ARUNATILAKE Nisha, 37 ASHRAF P. Muhammed, 23 Asian Development Bank, 7, 61 ATTFIELD Ian, 9 ATURAPANE Harsha, 51 AURINI Janice, 60 BAE Sanghoon, 60 BAILY Supriya, 37 BAJAJ Monisha, 74 BAKER David, 68 BANDUR Agustinus, 74 BANDYOPADHYAY Madhumita, 24 BANGAY Colin, 37 Banque mondiale, 2, 8, 12, 74 BARUA Bijoy Kumar, 12 BECKETT Gulbahar, 47 BILLIOUD Sébastien, 9 BJORK Christopher, 76 BLOEM Simone, 3 BONDY Christopher, 21 BOOCOCK Sarane Spence, 35 BORGONOVI Francesca, 7 BOUVIER Alain, 3 BRAY Mark, 3, 60, 61, 72, 73 BRENNAN Marie, 14 BRINTON Mary C., 84 BROCK Colin, 3 BUANG Sa'eda, 61

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BUCKNER Elizabeth, 26 BURTON Lisa, 26 BYUN Soo-yong, 9, 44, 50, 69 CALDWELL Brian J., 78 CARR-HILL Roy A., 37 CARROUE Laurent, 4 CHA Yun-Kyung, 44 CHAI Ching Sing, 74, 78 CHAN Sheng-Ju, 61 CHANG Tien-Ying, 71 CHAPMAN David W., 26 CHEN Chentong, 32 CHEN Dandan, 74 CHEN Junjun, 44 CHEN Mingyu, 32 CHEN Wei, 45 CHEN Xinxin, 44, 45 CHENG Eric C. K., 75 CHENG Henan, 45 CHENG Kai-Ming, 75, 81 CHEW Phyllis Ghim-Lian, 61 CHING Gregory S., 61 CHIOU Jia-Min, 71 CHIU Mei-Shiu, 22 CHIU YiChing Jean, 9 CHOI Il-Seon, 33 CHOI Sumi, 78 CHONG Wan Har, 27 CHOU Chuing Prudence, 61 CHOUNLAMANY Kongsy, 45 CHOWDHURY Shyamal, 43 CHOY William, 22 CHU Hongqi, 22 CHU James, 44 CHU-CHANG Mae, 75 CHUDGAR Amita, 22, 62 CHUN Hong-Min, 38 CHUNG Bong Gun, 38 CHUNG Carol, 45 CHUN-LOK Fung, 22

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CINCOTTA-SEGI Angela, 46 COLCLOUGH Christopher, 38 COLLET Didier, 4 Consortium for Research on Educational Access, 25, 40 COOK Melodie, 62 CORNU Laurence, 10 COWAN John, 9 CRAVENS Xiu Chen, 22, 75 DANG Hai-Anh, 62 DANG Ngoc Dung, 42 DARIT Sezali Md., 71 DATOO Al-Karim, 12 DAVID Graciela Padoani, 31 DAVIES Scott, 60 DE Anuradha, 23, 38 DE GRAUWE Anton, 62, 67 DE KETELE Jean-Marie, 4 DE REE Joppe, 75 DECOKER Gary, 76 DENG Feng, 74, 78 DENG Zonghi, 23 DESOETE Annemie, 85 DEVILLAR Robert A., 4 DEVOS Geert, 20 DEWINA Reno, 43 DIERKES Julian, 60, 62, 63 DING Meixia, 46 DING Xiaojiong, 63 DRAELANTS Hugues, 46 DRYSDALE Lawrie, 27 DUPRIEZ Vincent, 5 DUTOURNIER Guillaume, 10 DYER Caroline, 63 EGODAWATTE Gunawardena, 46 FAIRBROTHER Gregory P., 10 FITRIAH Amaliah, 76 FONG Vanessa L., 50 FONG Yiu-Chak, 77 FRONGILLO Edward A., 48 FROST Melanie, 72

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GAFOOR K. Abdul, 23 GALAN Christian coord., 23 GAMLATH Sharmila, 46 GAUTHIER Pierre-Louis, 10, 47, 82 GAUTHIER Roger-François, 24 GE Yun, 25 GEETHA Rani, 71 GEEVES Richard, 16 GIMÉNEZ Víctor, 83 GOH Kim Chuan, 28 GOH Michael, 58 GOH Pauline Swee Choo, 63, 64 GONG Xin, 38 GONIPATHAN S., 23 GOODWIN A. Lin, 24 GOOSSAERT Vincent, 47 GOPINATHAN Saravanan, 24 GOULAH Jason, 10 GOVINDA Rangachar, 24, 25 GRAHAM Anne, 16 GRANGE Philippe, 76 GROGAN Margaret, 75 GROSSMAN David L., 49 GU Mingyuan, 11 GUO Linyuan, 25, 47 GUO Shibao, 47 GUO Yan, 47 GUO Yu, 52 GURR David, 27 HA Bong-Woon, 47 HA THI TUYET Nhung, 16 HALAI Anjum, 11 HAM Seung-Hwan, 44 HAN Kyung-Seok., 52 HANNUM Emily, 47, 48 HARGREAVES Andy, 25 HÄRMÄ Joanna, 64 HASSAN Zainudin, 76 HE An E, 48 HENAFF Nolwen, 39, 40

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HETTIGE Siri T., 51 HEYNEMAN Stephen P., 64 HIGHAM Rob, 48 HO Kong Chong, 25 HO Li-Ching, 21 HONG Ji-young, 39 HONG Won-Pyo, 25, 48 HOON Chang-Yau, 77 HSIEH Pei-Tseng Jenny, 76 HSUEH Yeh, 6 HU Feng, 49 HUANG Min-Hsiung, 64 HUANG Teng, 11, 26 HUANG Tiédan, 49 HUE Ming Tak, 53 HUGONNIER Bernard, 77 HWANG Keumjoong, 11 HWANG Kwang-Huo, 11 IDRIS Abdul Rahman, 68 ILON Lynn, 77 JACOB W. James, 50 JACOBY Hanan G., 12 JAFFER Kulsoom, 12 JAMES Zoe, 72 JAMI Froagh Ahmed, 26 JANG Hyo-Min, 67 JANG Sunhwa, 72 JAYAWARDENA Priyanka, 37 JELANI Juliana, 65 JEONG Dong Wook, 30, 39 JI Zhe coord., 12 JIA Ning, 14 JIANG Binbin, 4 JOENG Ju-Ri, 58 JONG Cindy Jong, 79 JUNG Jin Hwa, 65 KANG Jiyoung, 17 KANG Mi Ok, 17 KANG Nam-Hwa, 49 KAPOOR Dip, 12

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KARASAWA Mayumi, 6 KAYANI Nadeem, 39 KEE Geok Hwa, 65 KENAYATHULLA Husaina Banu, 65, 66 KENNEDY Kerry J., 8, 49 KHAN Asif, 66 KHAN Ayaz Muhammad, 12 KHERA Reetika, 23 KHOA Le Huu, 5 KHOUNPHILAPHANH Bounchanh, 45 KIM Doo Hwan, 26 KIM Hyunchul, 60 KIM Hyunkyung, 26 KIM Ji-Ha, 66 KIM Juhu, 52 KIM Jungyun, 17 KIM Kwanyoung, 49 KIM Kyung-keun, 9, 44, 69 KIM Kyung-Min, 66 KIM Kyung-Nyun, 50 KIM Paul, 26 KIM Sungwon, 50 KIM Yong, 50 KIM Young-sik, 39 KIM-ENG Christine, 23 KING Kenneth, 26, 40 KOH Hak Hiang, 27 KOH Kim H., 27 KOMATSU Taro, 13 KONG Peggy, 55 KOO Jeong-Woo, 28 KOTHARI Brij, 22 KUAH-PEARCE Khun Eng, 77 KUAN Ping-Yin, 77 KULM Gerald, 46 KUNO H., 82 KUO Nien-Ping, 71 KWO Ora, 61, 72 LADOUSA Chaise, 50 LANGE Marie-France, 39, 40

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LATHAM Michael, 37 LAW Helen, 26 LAW Wing-Wah, 13, 19 LAWRENCE Christine Anne, 27 LÊ Thành Khôi, 5 LEE Amy H. I., 66 LEE Cheolwon, 60 LEE Chong Jae, 50, 67 LEE Heejin, 38 LEE Heesook, 67 LEE Hye-Won, 52 LEE Jin, 67 LEE John Chi-Kin, 78 LEE Jungyoon, 78 LEE Kyung Hee, 65 LEE Sang Kil, 78 LEE Sangeun, 17 LEE Sing-Kong, 28 LEE Sunyoung, 17 LEI Jing, 19 LEUNG Cynthia, 27 LEUNG Frederick Koon Shing, 35 LEUWERKE Wade C., 70 LEVI ALVARES Claude, 23, 27, 67 LEWIN Keith M., 40 LI Guofang, 19 LI Jin, 13 LI Qin, 45, 47 LI Qing, 47 LI Qiong, 30 LI Xiaobao, 46 LI Xiaohua, 14 LI Xiaoqing, 30 LI Yeping, 46 LI Yifei, 20 LIM Leonel, 28 LIM Sep Neo, 68 LIM Suat Khoh, 28 LIN Chun-Yu, 66 LIN Tingjin, 40

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LITTLE Angela W., 40, 51 LIU Chengfang, 45, 51 LIU Jeng, 67 LIU Jihong, 48 LIU Jing, 50 LIU Yarong, 75 LONDON Jonathan D., 14 LOSSMAN Hans, 28 LOW Ee-Ling, 28 LOYALKA Prashant, 51 LU Yao, 51 LUBIENSKI Christopher, 67 LUGAZ Candy, 67 LUGINBÜHL Odile, 10, 47 LUK-FONG Yuk Yee Pattie, 14 LUO Renfu, 51, 57 LUSCHEI Thomas F., 79 LYKINS Chad, 61, 72 MA Xin, 79 MACHART Régis, 68 MACPHERSON Ian Susan, 40 MAKANY Tamas, 26 MALAKOLUNTHU Suseela, 68 MANSURI Ghazala, 12 MASLAK Mary Ann, 52 MASON Mark, 3, 45 MASON Mark (dir.), 3 MCLOUGHLIN Andrea Sabatini, 52 MCNESS Elizabeth, 53 MEHROTRA Santosh, 41 MEIER Ellen B., 35 MERRY Michael S., 79 MILLER Karyn, 22 MILLIGAN Jeffrey Ayala, 79 MIRZA Munawar S., 12 MO Di, 44, 52, 57 MOK Ka Ho, 52 MONS Nathalie, 5 MONTT Guillermo, 7 MOON Rennie J., 28

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MORI Izumi, 68 MORRIS Paul, 29 MU Guanglun Michael, 14 MUKHOPADHYAY Rahul, 29 MULEY D. S., 29 MÜLLER Gotelind, 29 MUNYI Elijah N., 38 MUTO Megumi, 43 NASEEM M. Ayaz, 14 National University of Educational Planning and Administration (India), 25, 71 NAUDET Jules, 29 NAWAB Ali, 15 NG Ho Ming, 58 NG Pak Tee, 30, 79, 80 NG Vinci, 69 NGAH Kamarudin, 71 NGUYEN H., 42 NGUYEN Thuy-Phuong, 15 NGUYEN-PHUONG-MAI Mai, 15 NI Yujing, 30 NIU Changsong, 41 NORDTVEIT Bjørn H., 41 NORONHA Claire, 41, 42 OBA Jun, 80 OCDE Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, 7 OH Beomho, 60 OH Eun-Soon, 52 OH Hunseok, 60 OH Jeongran, 69 OH Se-Hee, 50 OHARA Yuki, 69 OKANO Kaori, 35 OLNECK Michael R., 53 OSBORN Marylin, 53 OTHMAN Azam, 69 OU Dongshu, 80 OUP (India), 23 PAL Naibedya Prasun, 82 PANT Daya, 29

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PARIS Scott G., 27 PARK Daekwon, 66 PARK Hyun-Jeong, 70 PARK Hyunjoon, 15, 47, 69 PARK Jiae, 17 PARK Jimin, 49 PARK Joo-Ho, 30, 53 PARK Minjeong, 31, 33 PAROLIN Bruno, 59 PEARSON Emma, 81 PENG Wen J., 53 PHELPS Renata, 16 PHILLION JoAnn, 53 PHILLIPSON Shane N., 80 PHILLIPSON Sivanes, 80 PILOT Albert, 15 POATE Derek, 42 PONG Myra, 54 PONS Xavier, 5 POON Angelia Mui Cheng, 31 POON Chew Leng, 31 PRIOR Diego, 83 PUN Sydney S., 81 QI Jie, 31 QI Tingting, 81 QIAN Haiyan, 54 RAO Nirmala, 81 RAO Nitya, 70 RAPPLEYE Jeremy, 5, 84 RAVEAUD Maroussia, 46, 53 REAR David, 16 RENGASAMY Nagappan C., 68 RIAZ Sanaa, 16 ROBERTSON Susan, 40 ROSS Heidi, 54 ROZELLE Scott, 45, 51, 52 RUSLAN Norbaiduri, 69 SAJEEV P. B., 31 SALGUES Camille, 54 SAMSON Meera, 23

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SANG Kyong-Ah, 70 SANTHIRAM R., 72 SARANGAPANI Padma., 31 SARGENT Tanja, 32, 55 SCHOFER Evan, 9 SEN Amartya, 32 SENGUPTA Atanu, 82 SENSENIG Victor J., 42 SHAEFFER Sheldon, 75 SHAH Alpa, 48 SHAND George, 82 SHI Qi, 70 SHI Yaojiang, 45, 52, 57 SHIMIZU Kazuhiko, 21 SHIMOMURA Takayuki, 33 SHIN Jiwon, 55 SHOJO Mari, 51 SILFVER Anne-Louise, 55 SIM Jasmine B.-Y., 21 SIU Kin Wai Michael, 35 SO Hyo-Jeong, 28, 34 SO Kyunghee, 17, 55 SOH Kaycheng, 32 SON Woojung, 55 SONG Chanhoo, 49 SONG Kyoung-Oh, 70 SONOYAMA Daisuke, 82 SOUTHGATE Darby E., 70 SRIPRAKASH Arathi, 29, 32 SRIVASTAVA Prachi, 41, 42 STERN Jonathan M. B., 64 SUA Tan Yao, 17, 70, 71 SUBEKTI Nanang Bagus, 76 SUCHARITA V., 71 SUJATHA K., 71 SUMARYANTO Sony, 43 SUMINTONO Bambang, 76 SUNG Yao-Ting, 71 SUNG Youl-Kwan, 17, 31, 33, 47 SURATNO Tatang, 82

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SYMACO Lorraine Pe, 82 TAKAYAMA Keita, 82 TAKAYANAGI Taeko, 33 TALBANI Aziz, 17 TALEJA Neha, 26 TAN Andrew K.G., 65 TAN Charlene, 18, 22, 33, 83 TAN Cheng Yong, 83 TAN Jason, 33, 34 TAN Kelvin, 34 TAN Oon Seng, 34 TAN Yao Sua, 72 TAPLIN Margaret, 81 TERLOUW Cees, 15 THIEME Claudio, 83 THOMAS Sally, 53 TILAK Jandhyala, 43 TOBIN Joseph, 6 TOH Yancy, 34 TOI Atsuko, 83 TONG Siu Yin Annie, 34 Transitions & Equity, 25 TSAI Chin-Chung, 74, 78 TSAI Chun-Li, 72 TSAI Wen-Tien, 84 TSANG Mun C., 38 TSENG Fen-Lan, 71 TSUJITA Yuko, 34 TSUNEYOSHI Ryoko, 35 UNESCO. Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation la science et la culture, 8 UNESCO. Asia and Pacific regional bureau for education, 8 UNESCO. Bangkok office, 8 UNICEF. Fonds des Nations unies pour l'enfance, 7 VALCKE Martin, 85 VAN DER VEER Peter, 18 VASUDEVAN Vasundhara, 68 VENTURA Alexandre, 72 VERHAEGHE JeanPierre, 85 VU Binh Thanh, 9 WALFORD Geoffrey, 40

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WALKER Allan, 54 WANG Dan, 55, 72 WANG Ling, 55 WANG Shaoyi, 14 WANG Xiaohui, 18 WANG Yimin, 54 WANG Yuxiang, 18, 53 WEI Dan, 18 WELCH Anthony, 84 WHITEBREAD David, 22 WILLIS David Blake, 84 WONG Jocelyn L. N., 56 WONG Kung Teck, 63, 64 WONG Yi Lin, 35 WONG Yu Cheung, 52 WOO Myung Suk, 56 WOODHEAD Martin, 72 WU Jinting, 57 WU Xiang Rong, 53 WU Xiaxin, 57 WU Yi-Jung, 32 XIAO Yumin, 35 XU Shuqin, 19 YAMADA Shoko, 43 YAMAMOTO Yoko, 84 YAMAUCHI Futoshi, 43 YANG Chih-Neng, 66 YANG Dongping ed., 57, 58 YAP Pui-San, 21 YASUHIKO Jinnouchi, 84 YATES Lyn, 6 YI Hongmei, 44, 52, 57 YIN Hong-biao, 19 YON Kyu Jin, 58 YOSHINO Asako, 85 YU Heekeun, 78 YUAN Jing, 79 ZHAN Shengli, 72 ZHANG Chong, 53 ZHANG Linxiu, 44, 45, 52, 57

98

ZHANG Wei, 73 ZHANG Xiao Feng, 58 ZHANG Yuping, 55, 85 ZHAO Dan, 59 ZHAO Ningning, 85 ZHAO Qian, 22 ZHAO Weili, 19 ZHAO Yong, 19 ZHENG Xinrong, 14 ZHOU Hao, 51 ZHU Chang, 20 ZHU Yan, 35 ZHUANG Yue-Lin, 21 ZOU Jun, 30 ZUBAIDAH Ida, 79

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Index zones géographiques Geographical index

Asie de l’Est, 11, 58 Asie du Sud-est, 81 Chine, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 27, 30, 31, 33, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 61, 62, 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82 Corée du Sud, 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 17, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 32, 37, 38, 42, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 54, 55, 57, 58, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 80 Hong-Kong, 7, 8, 9, 14, 16, 22, 24, 26, 28, 29, 34, 35, 46, 55, 58, 59, 66, 70, 72, 74, 76, 77, 78 Inde, 3, 12, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 29, 31, 32, 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 47, 49, 50, 60, 61, 62, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 78, 79 Indonésie, 3, 7, 8, 41, 42, 48, 59, 62, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 79, 80, 81 Japon, 5, 7, 8, 15, 16, 21, 23, 27, 31, 32, 34, 42, 46, 48, 54, 60, 62, 65, 66, 72, 73, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82 Laos, 7, 8, 44, 45, 54 Malaisie, 3, 7, 8, 17, 59, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 81 Pakistan, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 24, 38, 39, 41, 48, 62, 63, 64, 76 Shanghai, 22, 33, 39, 53, 54, 57, 61, 72, 76, 79, 80 Singapour, 6, 7, 8, 17, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 46, 48, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80 Sri Lanka, 12, 36, 45, 50 Taïwan, 9, 10, 11, 22, 26, 48, 52, 59, 64, 65, 68, 69, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 80 Vietnam, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 60, 81

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