Building basics: Leading the blind

rivet sleeve should fit within speci- fied tolerances. Celebrates of catalog sales! 800-221-9425 www.wicksaircraft.com. Kelly Oil Filters. Air Vents $13 to $60.
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nuts & bolts

building basics

Leading the Blind Installing CherryMax rivets requires preparation, but the benefits outweigh the hassles Ronald Sterkenburg

O

nce in a while aircraf t builders encou nter situations where they can’t install a solid rivet because there is access to only one side of the structure. The obvious choice would be to install a blind rivet. The POP

Stem

Driving Anvil

blind rivet system was one of the original blind rivets on the market. However, POP brand rivets and many other commercially available rivets are not certified for structural aerospace applications. Advisory Circular AC 43.13-1B

Driving Anvil Safe-lock Locking Collar Rivet Sleeve

Rivet Sleeve Locking Collar Stem Breaknotch Bulbed Blind Head

CherryMax blind rivets are useful in joining surfaces that are not subject to tension or head prying, nor should they be used under the water line in amphibs. In other applications, however, they show good strength and durability. 94

OCTOBER 2004

states, “Common pull-type Pop rivets, produced for nonaircraftrelated applications, are not approved for use on certificated aircraft structures or components.” Blind rivet systems developed for the aviation industry are generally one of two types: friction-lock blind rivets and mechanical-lock spindle blind rivets. The frictionlock blind rivets tend to be sensitive to vibrations, which can cause the stem to fall out, greatly reducing their strength. The mechanical-lock spindle blind rivets were developed to prevent this problem, but blind rivets still haven’t lost their bad reputation. Data concerning the strength of blind fasteners can be found in the Metallic Material Properties Development and Standardization Handbook (MMPDS), which is available to the public through the FAA. This manual replaces MILHDBK-5. One popular and readily available mechanical-lock spindle blind rivet, the CherryMax, is available in many hardware catalogs and with suppliers such as Aviall, Wicks, and

Cherry Max Hole Sizes

anvil blocks the markings on the flush style rivets, and these are only Nominal Oversized visible after installation. Several different material Rivet Drill Rivet Drill combinations are used. The rivet 1/8 #30 1/8 #27 material is made of 5056 aluminum 5/32 #20 5/32 #16 or monel, and the stem material is 3/16 #10 3/16 #5 made of alloy steel or corrosionresistant steel. 1/4 #F 1/4 #I CherryMax rivets come in packages of 100. Don’t open the Aircraft Spruce. One of the main packages till you need the rivets, advantages of the CherryMax rivet and seal the packages after you are is that only one piece of tooling is done. This will help prevent the required to install three nominal lubrication from drying out, which diameters (1/8, 5/32, 3/16) and Prep Work could cause installation trouble. The CherryMax rivet comes in The main disadvantage of the three oversized diameters. The oversized rivets have a several different types of head CherryMax rivet is the cost, which shank that is 1/64 larger than the styles: protruding head (MS20470), can be 25 cents to 75 cents apiece. nominal size. It is relatively easy 100° flush head (MS20426), and To prepare your material for to differentiate between nominal 100° reduced flush head (NAS1097). installation, make sure to prepare and oversized rivets. The nominal The grip length is marked on the the hole. Use a clean, sharp, size rivet has a gold-colored anvil, rivet head, as is the rivet and stem properly ground drill bit with a and the oversized rivet has a silver- material. Unfortunately, these 135° split point. Use Cleco fasteners marks can only be read on the to keep the sheets together and decolored anvil. Despite the good reputation protruding head style rivet. The burr the holes. CherryMax blind rivets enjoy, in some applications they simply are not suitable. Blind rivets should not be used below the water line on floats or amphibian hulls. They also should not be used where the fastener is in tension or subject to head prying. Furthermore, blind rivets should be inspected on a regular basis for looseness. If you need to replace solid rivets with blind rivets in a load-carrying application, consult with the FAA.

EAA Sport Aviation

95

building basics Flushness Limitations Rivet size

1/8

5/32

3/16

1/4

A

.010

.010

.010

.015

B

.015

.020

.020

.025

It takes some practice to drive rivets properly. The locking collar and rivet sleeve should fit within specified tolerances.

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The hole size is crucial as well. A 1/8-inch nominal rivet requires a #30 drill hole, while an oversized 1/8-inch rivet needs a #27 hole. A 5/32-inch rivet requires a #20 hole for nominal rivets and #16 for oversized. Oversized rivets are common because they are often used to make repairs when solid rivets need to be replaced. The original rivet will be removed, the hole will be 1/64 oversized, and a CherryMax rivet installed. Use a microstop countersink to countersink the holes. If you use oversized CherryMax rivets, make sure that you use a countersink cutter with a correct pilot: 1/8 – #27, 5/32 – #16, 3/16 – #5, and 1/4 – #1. An excessive undersized pilot will produce a countersink well that is not concentric with the hole, which can create gaps under the head and/or a cocked head. Be careful while de-burring that you don’t countersink the holes. This will affect the clamp-up of the riveted joint. Use a CherryMax grip gauge to determine the correct length of the rivet. CherryMax rivets come in many different grip sizes, and it is important to select the correct grip. To measure, insert the grip gauge in the hole, pull back until the lip of the gauge contacts the back of the structure, and read where the front side of the structure coincides with the numbers and lines on the 96

OCTOBER 2004

gauge. Always read the next higher number (if your reading is directly on a line, you may use either that grip or the next higher one).

Installation Matters Once you have your materials prepared and rivets selected, use Clecos to keep the sheets together during installation. Install the rivet in the properly prepared hole. The rivet should fit in the hole, so don’t force it. You can use a hand riveter such as the lightweight G-27 to install the 1/8-inch CherryMax rivets or you could use a POP rivet squeezer, but it takes some force. If you need to install more than a few rivets, it is better to use a power riveter. The CherryMax installation tooling is rather expensive ($700 and up), but an aftermarket handheld hydraulic riveter/nutsetter is available for around $250 from several suppliers. Don’t stick the rivet in the pulling head of the power tool. If you squeeze the trigger, the rivet will shoot away with considerable force and could cause serious harm to someone. Put the pulling head of the installation tool over the serrated rivet stem. Press firmly against the head of the rivet to avoid sheet gap. Apply a firm and steady pressure and squeeze the trigger. When the rivet is completely installed, release the trigger and the stem will be ejected.

Mark Center With Small Drill

Drill Stem To Destroy Lock

Drill Out Stem

Break Off Drill Nearly Head Through Head With Rivet Shank Size Drill

Removing CherryMax rivets is a multi-step process that is both time consuming and frustrating if you cannot get to the back of the rivet. After installation, inspect the rivet to ensure that it has properly seated. The locking collar should be flush with the top surface of the rivet head.

Before you install a CherryMax rivet, you should ask yourself how likely it is that you will have to remove it some day. The removal of the CherryMax can be quite

Drive Out Remaining Shank

difficult and frustrating. The removal is relatively easy when you can back up the structure, but many times this is impossible. Therefore, it may be better to use a nut plate or a Rivnut instead of a CherryMax if you think it likely you will have to remove it again.

EAA Sport Aviation

97

building basics

“If you're considering building your own airplane, I highly recommend EAA SportAir Workshops. The intro course gave me hands-on experience with a diversity of materials and methods. Now I know exactly what kind of plane I'm going to build.”

If you do have to remove a CherryMax, try this procedure: Use a small drill at the top of the stem to destroy the lock. This is the hard part; the lock is extremely hard and the drill has the tendency to walk away. You can also use a rivet removal tool to prevent the drill from walking. If you can back up the structure, it is easier to use a prick punch and drive the stem down a little.

It may be better to use a nut plate or a Rivnut instead of a CherryMax if you think it likely you will have to remove it again.

Hank Turner, EAA # 733554

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After the lock is destroyed, use a drill with the same size as the shank and drill nearly through the head of the rivet. Break off the head with the drill or a drive punch of the same diameter as the shank. Drive out the remaining shank with a drive punch the same size as the rivet shank. An alternative method to remove a CherryMax works fine if you can’t use a hammer and punch to drive down the stem. Use a small CoVan drill bit to drill in the center or use a pencil grinder with a round ball carbide burr to destroy the lock. Practice with the pencil grinder before you start removing rivets to avoid damage to your aircraft. Use a shank-size CoVan drill bit and drill slowly, with plenty of pressure, through the head. If you drill off center, use the pencil grinder to correct. Break off the head with a punch. Remove your part and then remove the shank from the hole when you have access to both sides. Blind rivets can be challenging to use, but they are essential to certain aircraft structures. Being prepared for the challenges of CherryMax rivets will make it easier to make your airplane all it can be. 98

OCTOBER 2004