Fiat Uno Service and Repair Manual - MAFIADOC.COM

Buying Spare Parts & Vehicle Identification Numbers. Page REF•12 ..... ignition key to MAR to retain the steering in ..... x 0.0013 = Horsepower (hp). Velocity ...
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Fiat Uno Service and Repair Manual Peter G Strasman (923-320-3Y7)

Models covered

Fiat Uno 45, 55, 60, 70, 1.1 and 1.4, including Turbo ie and special/limited editions 903 cc, 999 cc, 1108 cc, 1116 cc, 1299 cc, 1301 cc and 1372 cc petrol engines with manual transmissions Does not Selecta, Fiorino type vans or Diesel engine

© Haynes Publishing 1996 A book in the Haynes Service and Repair Manual Series

ABCDE FGHIJ KLMNO PQRST 123

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright holder.

Printed by J H Haynes & Co. Ltd, Sparkford, Nr Yeovil, Somerset BA22 7JJ Haynes Publishing Sparkford, Nr Yeovil, Somerset BA22 7JJ, England Haynes North America, Inc 861 Lawrence Drive, Newbury Park, California 91320, USA

ISBN 1 85960 089 1

Editions Haynes S.A. 147/149, rue Saint Honoré, 75001 Paris, France

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Haynes Publishing Nordiska AB Fyrisborgsgatan 5, 754 50 Uppsala, Sverige

Contents LIVING WITH YOUR FIAT UNO Introduction

Page

0•4

Safety First!

Page

0•5

General dimensions, weights and capacities

Page

0•6

Roadside Repairs Jump starting

Page

0•7

Jacking, towing and wheel changing

Page

0•8

Identifying leaks

Page

0•9

Page

0•10

Recommended Lubricants and Fluids

Page

0•13

Conversion factors

Page

0•14

Routine Maintenance and Servicing Maintenance schedule (also see Chapter 13)

Contents REPAIRS & OVERHAUL Engine and Associated Systems Engine (also see Chapter 13)

Page

1•1

Cooling and heating systems (also see Chapter 13)

Page

2•1

Fuel system (also see Chapter 13)

Page

3•1

Ignition system (also see Chapter 13)

Page

4•1

Clutch (also see Chapter 13)

Page

5•1

Transmission (also see Chapter 13)

Page

6•1

Driveshafts, hubs, roadwheels and tyres (also see Chapter 13)

Page

7•1

Page

8•1

Page

9•1

Steering

Page

10•1

Suspension (also see Chapter 13)

Page

11•1

Page

12•1

Supplement: Revisions and information on later models

Page

13•1

Wiring Diagrams

Page

14•1

Transmission

Brakes Braking system (also see Chapter 13)

Electrical Electrical system (also see Chapter 13)

Steering and suspension

Bodywork Bodywork (also see Chapter 13)

Additional information

REFERENCE MOT Test Checks

Page

REF•1

Tools and Working Facilities

Page

REF•5

General Repair Procedures

Page

REF•8

Fault Finding

Page

REF•9

Buying Spare Parts & Vehicle Identification Numbers

Page REF•12

Glossary of Technical Terms

Page REF•13

Index

Page REF•17

0•4

Introduction

Introduction to the Fiat Uno The Fiat Uno is a well designed and constructed car having an excellent power-to-weight ratio. The car is very economical, but still offers good performance with excellent body interior space. Attractive features include the options available for four- or five-speeds or three- or five-door bodywork. All essential accessories, except a radio, are fitted as standard and a sunroof is optionally available. From the home mechanic’s point of view all repair and servicing operations are straightforward without the need for special tools. Spare parts are immediately available at moderate cost.

Acknowledgements

Fiat Uno 1301 cc Turbo ie

Thanks are due to Champion Spark Plug who supplied the illustrations showing spark plug conditions. Certain other illustrations are the copyright of the Fiat Motor Company (UK) Limited and are used with their permission. Thanks are also due to Sykes-Pickavant Limited, who provided some of the workshop tools, and to all those people at Sparkford who helped in the production of this manual. We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle manufacturers make alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not inform us, No liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the information given.

Fiat Uno 1372 cc 70 SX ie

Safety First! Working on your car can be dangerous. This page shows just some of the potential risks and hazards, with the aim of creating a safety-conscious attitude.

General hazards Scalding • Don’t remove the radiator or expansion tank cap while the engine is hot. • Engine oil, automatic transmission fluid or power steering fluid may also be dangerously hot if the engine has recently been running.

Burning • Beware of burns from the exhaust system and from any part of the engine. Brake discs and drums can also be extremely hot immediately after use.

Crushing • When working under or near a raised vehicle, always supplement the jack with axle stands, or use drive-on ramps. Never venture under a car which is only supported by a jack. • Take care if loosening or tightening hightorque nuts when the vehicle is on stands. Initial loosening and final tightening should be done with the wheels on the ground.

• Mains voltage is also dangerous. Make sure that any mains-operated equipment is correctly earthed. Mains power points should be protected by a residual current device (RCD) circuit breaker.

Fume or gas intoxication • Exhaust fumes are poisonous; they often contain carbon monoxide, which is rapidly fatal if inhaled. Never run the engine in a confined space such as a garage with the doors shut. • Fuel vapour is also poisonous, as are the vapours from some cleaning solvents and paint thinners.

Poisonous or irritant substances • Avoid skin contact with battery acid and with any fuel, fluid or lubricant, especially antifreeze, brake hydraulic fluid and Diesel fuel. Don’t syphon them by mouth. If such a substance is swallowed or gets into the eyes, seek medical advice. • Prolonged contact with used engine oil can cause skin cancer. Wear gloves or use a barrier cream if necessary. Change out of oilsoaked clothes and do not keep oily rags in your pocket. • Air conditioning refrigerant forms a poisonous gas if exposed to a naked flame (including a cigarette). It can also cause skin burns on contact.

Fire

Asbestos

• Fuel is highly flammable; fuel vapour is explosive. • Don’t let fuel spill onto a hot engine. • Do not smoke or allow naked lights (including pilot lights) anywhere near a vehicle being worked on. Also beware of creating sparks (electrically or by use of tools). • Fuel vapour is heavier than air, so don’t work on the fuel system with the vehicle over an inspection pit. • Another cause of fire is an electrical overload or short-circuit. Take care when repairing or modifying the vehicle wiring. • Keep a fire extinguisher handy, of a type suitable for use on fuel and electrical fires.

• Asbestos dust can cause cancer if inhaled or swallowed. Asbestos may be found in gaskets and in brake and clutch linings. When dealing with such components it is safest to assume that they contain asbestos.

Electric shock • Ignition HT voltage can be dangerous, especially to people with heart problems or a pacemaker. Don’t work on or near the ignition system with the engine running or the ignition switched on.

0•5

Special hazards Hydrofluoric acid • This extremely corrosive acid is formed when certain types of synthetic rubber, found in some O-rings, oil seals, fuel hoses etc, are exposed to temperatures above 4000C. The rubber changes into a charred or sticky substance containing the acid. Once formed, the acid remains dangerous for years. If it gets onto the skin, it may be necessary to amputate the limb concerned. • When dealing with a vehicle which has suffered a fire, or with components salvaged from such a vehicle, wear protective gloves and discard them after use.

The battery • Batteries contain sulphuric acid, which attacks clothing, eyes and skin. Take care when topping-up or carrying the battery. • The hydrogen gas given off by the battery is highly explosive. Never cause a spark or allow a naked light nearby. Be careful when connecting and disconnecting battery chargers or jump leads.

Air bags • Air bags can cause injury if they go off accidentally. Take care when removing the steering wheel and/or facia. Special storage instructions may apply.

Diesel injection equipment • Diesel injection pumps supply fuel at very high pressure. Take care when working on the fuel injectors and fuel pipes. Warning: Never expose the hands, face or any other part of the body to injector spray; the fuel can penetrate the skin with potentially fatal results.

Remember...

A few tips

DO

DON’T

• Do use eye protection when using power tools, and when working under the vehicle.

• Don’t attempt to lift a heavy component which may be beyond your capability – get assistance.

• Do wear gloves or use barrier cream to protect your hands when necessary. • Do get someone to check periodically that all is well when working alone on the vehicle. • Do keep loose clothing and long hair well out of the way of moving mechanical parts. • Do remove rings, wristwatch etc, before working on the vehicle – especially the electrical system. • Do ensure that any lifting or jacking equipment has a safe working load rating adequate for the job.

• Don’t rush to finish a job, or take unverified short cuts. • Don’t use ill-fitting tools which may slip and cause injury. • Don’t leave tools or parts lying around where someone can trip over them. Mop up oil and fuel spills at once. • Don’t allow children or pets to play in or near a vehicle being worked on.

0•6

General dimensions, weights and capacities

Dimensions Overall length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overall width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wheelbase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Front track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rear track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3644 mm (143.6 in) 1555 mm (61.3 in) 1432 mm (56.4 in) 2362 mm (93.1 in) 1340 mm (52.8 in) 1300 mm (51.2 in)

Weights (kerb) Uno 45: Three-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uno 55: Three-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uno 70: Three-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uno SX: Three-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

700 kg (1543 lb) 710 kg (1566 lb) 730 kg (1610 lb) 740 kg (1632 lb) 740 kg (1632 lb) 750 kg (1654 lb) 770 kg (1698 lb) 780 kg (1720 lb)

Capacities Fuel tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.0 litre (9.25 gal) Engine oil (with filter change): 903 cc engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.42 litre (6.0 pint) 1116 and 1301 cc engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10 Iitre (7.2 pint) Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.40 litre (4.2 pint) Steering box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140.0 cc Driveshaft CV joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125.0 cc Cooling system: 903 cc engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 litre (8.1 pint) 1116 cc engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.0 litre (10.6 pint) 1301 cc engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 litre (10.9 pint) For information applicable to later models, see Supplement at end of manual

Roadside Repairs Jump starting will get you out of trouble, but you must correct whatever made the battery go flat in the first place. There are three possibilities: The battery has been drained by repeated attempts to start, or by leaving the lights on.

1

The charging system is not working properly (alternator drivebelt slack or broken, alternator wiring fault or alternator itself faulty).

2 3

The battery itself is at fault (electrolyte low, or battery worn out).

1

Connect one end of the red jump lead to the positive (+) terminal of the flat battery

0•7

Jump starting Booster battery (jump) starting When jump-starting a car using a booster battery, observe the following precautions:

4 Make sure that the booster battery is the same voltage as the discharged one in the vehicle.

4 Before connecting the booster battery, make sure that the ignition is switched off.

4 If the battery is being jump-started from the battery in another vehicle, the two vehcles MUST NOT TOUCH each other.

4 Ensure that all electrical equipment (lights, heater, wipers, etc) is switched off.

2

Connect the other end of the red lead to the positive (+) terminal of the booster battery.

+

+





4 Make sure that the transmission is in neutral (or PARK, in the case of automatic transmission).

3

Connect one end of the black jump lead to the negative (-) terminal of the booster battery

4

Connect the other end of the black jump lead to a bolt or bracket on the engine block, well away from the battery, on the vehicle to be started.

5

Make sure that the jump leads will not come into contact with the fan, drivebelts or other moving parts of the engine.

6

Start the engine using the booster battery, then with the engine running at idle speed, disconnect the jump leads in the reverse order of connection.

0•8

Roadside Repairs

Jacking, towing and wheel changing To avoid repetition, the procedure for raising the vehicle, in order to carry out work under it, is not included before each relevant operation described in this Manual. It is to be preferred, and it is certainly recommended, that the vehicle is positioned over an inspection pit or raised on a lift. Where these facilities are not available, use ramps or jack up the vehicle strictly in accordance with the following guide. Once the vehicle is raised, supplement the jack with axle stands.

To raise the front end with a garage jack, locate the jack under the transmission lower mounting, just below and slightly to the rear of the transmission oil drain plug. Protect the mounting by placing a block of wood between the jack head and the mounting. To raise the rear of the car, the jack should be placed under the spare wheel housing as far to the rear as possible. Place a wooden bearer between the jack head and the housing.

ignition key to MAR to retain the steering in the unlocked position.

Jacking

Towing

The jack supplied with the car should only be used to change a wheel. Do not use this jack when overhaul or repair work is being carried out; employ a hydraulic or screw jack and supplement it with axle stands. Jacking points are located under the sills for use with the jack supplied.

When being towed, use the left-hand front towing eye. When towing another vehicle, use the rear towing eye adjacent to the exhaust tailpipe. When being towed, remember that the brake pedal will require heavier pressure due to lack of servo assistance. Always turn the

With the car on firm level ground, apply the handbrake fully. Remove the hub cap or wheel trim, if fitted. Release, but do not remove, the bolts. Chock the front and rear of the opposite roadwheel and then raise the car using the sill jack supplied with the car if it is being done at the roadside. Alternatively use a workshop jack supplemented with axle stands. Remove the wheel bolts, change the wheel and screw in the bolts finger tight. It is recommended that the bolt threads are smeared with multi-purpose grease. Lower the car, remove the jack and tighten the wheel bolts to the specified torque. Refit any wheel trim that was removed.

Spare wheel and jack stowage

Front tow hook

Rear tow hook

Wheel changing

Roadside Repairs

0•9

Identifying leaks Puddles on the garage floor or drive, or obvious wetness under the bonnet or underneath the car, suggest a leak that needs investigating. It can sometimes be difficult to decide where the leak is coming from, especially if the engine bay is very dirty already. Leaking oil or fluid can also be blown rearwards by the passage of air under the car, giving a false impression of where the problem lies.

Warning: Most automotive oils and fluids are poisonous. Wash them off skin, and change out of contaminated clothing, without delay.

The smell of a fluid leaking from the car may provide a clue to what’s leaking. Some fluids are distinctively coloured. It may help to clean the car and to park it over some clean paper as an aid to locating the source of the leak. Remember that some leaks may only occur while the engine is running.

Sump oil

Oil from filter

Gearbox oil

Engine oil may leak from the drain plug...

...or from the base of the oil filter.

Gearbox oil can leak from the seals at the inboard ends of the driveshafts.

Antifreeze

Brake fluid

Power steering fluid

Leaking antifreeze often leaves a crystalline deposit like this.

A leak occurring at a wheel is almost certainly brake fluid.

Power steering fluid may leak from the pipe connectors on the steering rack.

0•10

Routine maintenance

Maintenance is essential for ensuring safety and desirable for the purpose of getting the best in terms of performance and economy from the car. Over the years the need for periodic lubrication has been greatly reduced if not totally eliminated. This has unfortunately tended to lead some owners to think that because no such action is required the items either no longer exist or will last forever. This is certainly not the case; it is essential to carry out regular visual examinations as comprehensively as possible in order to spot any possible defects at an early stage before they develop into major and expensive repairs. For information applicable to later models, see Supplement.

Every 250 miles (400 km), weekly, or before a long journey m m m m m

Check engine oil level Check brake reservoir fluid level Check tyre pressures Check operation of all lights and horn Top up washer fluid reservoirs, adding a screen wash, and check operation of washers and wipers m Check coolant level m Check battery electrolyte level

Every 6000 miles (10 000 km) or six months, whichever comes first m Renew engine oil and filter (Chapter 1, Section 2) m Check drivebelt tension (Chapter 2, Section 8) m Check carburettor idle speed and mixture adjustments (Chapter 3) m Check contact points and dwell angle (mechanical breaker distributors) (Chapter 4, Section 3) m Check tyre tread wear (Chapter 7, Section 7) m Check disc pads for wear (Chapter 8, Section 3)

Every 12 000 miles (20 000 km) or 12 months, whichever comes first m Check and adjust valve clearances (Chapter 1, Sections 5 and 26) m Renew air cleaner element (Chapter 3, Section 2)

m Check exhaust system for corrosion (Chapter 3, Section 19) m Renew contact breaker points and adjust dwell angle (mechanical breaker distributors) (Chapter 4, Section 3) m Check and adjust ignition timing (Chapter 4, Section 4) m Renew spark plugs (Chapter 4, Section 11) m Check clutch adjustment (Chapter 5, Section 2) m Check transmission oil level (Chapter 6, Section 2) m Check driveshaft and steering rack gaiters for splits (Chapters 7 and 10) m Check rear brake shoe linings for wear (Chapter 8, Section 4) m Check handbrake travel (Chapter 8, Section 16) m Check headlamp beam alignment (Chapter 9, Section 17) m Check balljoints for wear (Chapter 10, Section 2) m Check front wheel alignment (Chapter 10, Section 8) m Check suspension bushes for wear (Chapter 11, Section 2) m Check seat belts for fraying (Chapter 12, Section 23) m Lubricate controls, hinges and locks

Every 24 000 miles (40 000 km) or two years, whichever comes first m Renew coolant anti-freeze mixture (Chapter 2, Section 3) m Renew transmission oil (Chapter 6, Section 2) m Renew brake hydraulic fluid (Chapter 8, Section 12) m Check for underbody corrosion and clean out door and sill drain holes (Chapter 12, Section 2)

Every 36 000 miles (60 000 km) or three years, whichever comes first m Renew the timing belt - 1116 and 1299/1301 cc (Chapter 1, Section 28)

Routine maintenance

0•11

Engine compartment (air cleaner removed for clarity) on 55S model 1 2 3 4

Strut upper mounting Washer fluid reservoir Brake fluid reservoir Ignition coil

5 6 7 8

Throttle cable Carburettor Battery Timing belt cover

9 Distributor 10 Oil filler cap 11 Radiator electric cooling fan

12 13 14 15

Radiator Coolant expansion tank Front mounting Clutch operating cable

0•12

Routine maintenance

View of front end from below on 55S model 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

View of rear end from below 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Suspension trailing arm Fuel tank filler hose Rear axle beam Rear silencer Spring seat Expansion box Handbrake cable Fuel tank support strap Fuel tank Handbrake cable adjuster

Tie-rod end Track control arm Lower mounting Gearchange control rods Exhaust pipe Driveshafts Transmission Sump drain plug Disc caliper Front mounting Horns Radiator Oil filter

Lubricants and Fluids

Component or system

Lubricant type/specification

1 Engine

Multigrade engine oil, viscosity SAE 15W/40, meeting API-SG or CCMC G2/G3 specification (or equivalent multigrade engine oil with viscosity rating suitable for ambient temperature in which vehicle is operated see owner’s handbook)

2 Transmission: 1372 cc Turbo ie model All other models

FIAT ZC 80/S gear oil FIAT ZC 90 gear oil

3 Cooling system

Ethylene glycol based antifreeze

4 Brake and clutch hydraulic system(s)

Hydraulic fluid to DOT 3 or 4, or SAE J1703C

5 Driveshaft CV joints and steering rack

Lithium based molybdenum disulphide

General greasing

Multi-purpose lithium based grease

0•13

0•14

Conversion Factors

Length (distance) Inches (in) Feet (ft) Miles

x 25.4 x 0.305 x 1.609

= Millimetres (mm) = Metres (m) = Kilometres (km)

x 0.0394 = Inches (in) x 3.281 = Feet (ft) x 0.621 = Miles

Volume (capacity) Cubic inches (cu in; in3) Imperial pints (Imp pt) Imperial quarts (Imp qt) Imperial quarts (Imp qt) US quarts (US qt) Imperial gallons (Imp gal) Imperial gallons (Imp gal) US gallons (US gal)

x x x x x x x x

16.387 = 0.568 = 1.137 = 1.201 = 0.946 = 4.546 = 1.201 = 3.785 =

Cubic centimetres (cc; cm3) Litres (l) Litres (l) US quarts (US qt) Litres (l) Litres (l) US gallons (US gal) Litres (l)

x x x x x x x x

0.061 1.76 0.88 0.833 1.057 0.22 0.833 0.264

= = = = = = = =

Cubic inches (cu in; in3) Imperial pints (Imp pt) Imperial quarts (Imp qt) Imperial quarts (Imp qt) US quarts (US qt) Imperial gallons (Imp gal) Imperial gallons (Imp gal) US gallons (US gal)

Mass (weight) Ounces (oz) Pounds (lb)

x 28.35 = Grams (g) x 0.454 = Kilograms (kg)

x 0.035 = Ounces (oz) x 2.205 = Pounds (lb)

x 0.278 = Newtons (N) x 4.448 = Newtons (N) x 0.1 = Kilograms-force (kgf; kg)

x 3.6 = Ounces-force (ozf; oz) x 0.225 = Pounds-force (lbf; lb) x 9.81 = Newtons (N)

x 0.070 = Kilograms-force per square centimetre (kgf/cm2; kg/cm2) x 0.068 = Atmospheres (atm)

Force Ounces-force (ozf; oz) Pounds-force (lbf; lb) Newtons (N)

Pressure Pounds-force per square inch (psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2) Pounds-force per square inch (psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2) Pounds-force per square inch (psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2) Pounds-force per square inch (psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2) Kilopascals (kPa)

x 0.01

x 14.223 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2) x 14.696 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2) x 14.5 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2) x 0.145 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2) x 98.1 = Kilopascals (kPa)

Millibar (mbar) Millibar (mbar)

x x

x 0.01 = Millibar (mbar) x 68.947 = Millibar (mbar)

Millibar (mbar) Millibar (mbar) Millimetres of mercury (mmHg) Inches of water (inH2O)

x x x x

x 0.069 = Bars x 6.895 = Kilopascals (kPa) = Kilograms-force per square centimetre (kgf/cm2; kg/cm2) 100 = Pascals (Pa) 0.0145 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2) 0.75 = Millimetres of mercury (mmHg) 0.401 = Inches of water (inH2O) 0.535 = Inches of water (inH2O) 0.036 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi; lbf/in2; lb/in2)

x x x x

1.333 2.491 1.868 27.68

= = = =

Millibar (mbar) Millibar (mbar) Millimetres of mercury (mmHg) Inches of water (inH2O)

Torque (moment of force) Pounds-force inches (lbf in; lb in) Pounds-force inches (lbf in; lb in) Pounds-force inches (lbf in; lb in) Pounds-force feet (lbf ft; lb ft) Pounds-force feet (lbf ft; lb ft) Newton metres (Nm)

x 1.152 = Kilograms-force centimetre (kgf cm; kg cm) x 0.113 = Newton metres (Nm) x 0.083 = Pounds-force feet (lbf ft; lb ft) x 0.138 = Kilograms-force metres (kgf m; kg m) x 1.356 = Newton metres (Nm) x 0.102 = Kilograms-force metres (kgf m; kg m)

x 0.868 = Pounds-force inches (lbf in; lb in) x 8.85 = Pounds-force inches (lbf in; lb in) x 12 = Pounds-force inches (lbf in; lb in) x 7.233 = Pounds-force feet (lbf ft; lb ft) x 0.738 = Pounds-force feet (lbf ft; lb ft) x 9.804 = Newton metres (Nm)

Power Horsepower (hp)

x 745.7 = Watts (W)

x 0.0013 = Horsepower (hp)

Velocity (speed) Miles per hour (miles/hr; mph)

x 1.609 = Kilometres per hour (km/hr; kph) x 0.621 = Miles per hour (miles/hr; mph)

Fuel consumption* Miles per gallon (mpg)

x 0.354 = Kilometres per litre (km/l)

x 2.825 = Miles per gallon (mpg)

Temperature Degrees Fahrenheit = (°C x 1.8) + 32 Degrees Celsius (Degrees Centigrade; °C) = (°F - 32) x 0.56 * It is common practice to convert from miles per gallon (mpg) to litres/100 kilometres (l/100km), where mpg x l/100 km = 282