NWFP Report 2012 - L'agriculture Familiale

2.3 Bush meat . .... communities (tapping, collection, transportation, processing and marketing), raw materials for economic and sociocultural .... A. Bekele-Tesemma, A. Birnie, and B. Tengnas. Useful trees and ... J. Falconer. "hungry season" ...
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NWFP Report 2012

Ethiopia

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http://www.fao.org/forestry/nwfp/78836/en/eth/ Food and Agriculture Organization, FOPP

Hugo Lehoux & Anis Chakib

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This document is still under construction, please don’t consider it as an official FAO publication

CONTENTS

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Contents 1 Plants and plant products 1.1 Food . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Fodder . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Medicines . . . . . . . . 1.4 Colorants and dyes . . . 1.5 Utensils, handicrafts and 1.6 Ornamental plants . . . 1.7 Exudates . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4

2 Animals and animal products 2.1 Living animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Honey and bee-wax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Bush meat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 9 9 11

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . construction materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS

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Context The population of Ethiopia is estimated around 84.976 million people in 2010 [FAOSTAT]. The total area of the country is 1,104,300 km2 with around 12.3 million hectares of forests and 44.65 million hectares of other wooded lands in 2010 [FAO, 2010].

Introduction Main Non-Wood Forest Products The most important non-wood forest products (NWFP) of Ethiopia are exudates (Gum Arabic and other natural gums), medicinal plants, honey and beeswax. Other NWFP include edible leaves, fodder, latex, tannins, incenses, spices, dyestuffs and ropes.

General Information In Ethiopia, a variety of NWFP are used. FAO [FAO, 1990] describes the exploitation of fodder, latex (from Landolphia sp.), tannins, medicinal plants, incenses and spices, dyestuffs, gums, ropes as well as honey and beeswax. Bekele-Tesemma et al. [Bekele-Tesemma et al., 1993] identified 199 tree and shrub species that were used for food and medicines (123 species), fodder (108 species), as well as for various other purposes (e.g. fibres, resins, tannins, oils - 117 species). Important edible NWFP are Pterocarpus sp. and Myrianthus sp. They are highly valued in the dry season, when the leaves of few other vegetables are available [Falconer, 1990].

1 1.1

Plants and plant products Food

No data available

1.2

Fodder

No data available.

1.3

Medicines

Traditional medicine is used by a large segment of the population in Ethiopia. It is one of the most important ways of making a livelihood for those who have no other means of income and it is also the most important way of getting relief from various diseases. According to Endashaw (2007), medicinal plants have a very significant role in primary health care delivery in Ethiopia

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PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS

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where 70% of human and 90% of livestock population depend on traditional medicine. Over 85 percent of the rural population, plus an increasing number of the poor in urban centers, utilize many of the available plants, as well as products from wild animals and minerals as their primary source of health care. The use of traditional medicine is increasing compared to the past because modern medicine has become very expensive and beyond the reach of most inhabitants. The value and role of traditional health care systems will not diminish in the future because they are both culturally viable and expected to remain affordable. A recent study carried out by the Institute of Biodiversity Conservation of Addis Ababa and quoted by Endashaw [Endashaw, 2007] showed that the annual value of medicinal plants (including traded and non traded ones) was Birr 423 million making average health coverage of 42% of Ethiopian expenditure on pharmaceutical products. According to the same study, around 56 000 tons of medicinal plants are used each year of which 87% are harvested from wild stocks and only 13% being cultivated. Ethiopia has a long history of traditional health care based largely on rich though unstandardized pharmacopoeia used both by the local population (especially women) and traditional health practitioners (THPs). The efficacy of a few of these plants (Hagenia abyssinica and Glinus lotoides for the treatment of tapeworm, and Phytolacca dodecandra as a molluscicide in the control of schistosomiasis), has been scientifically determined but the safety and efficacy of many others in the treatment of various diseases remains underdeveloped. On record there are 600 species of medicinal plants constituting a little over ten percent of Ethiopia’s vascular flora. They are distributed all over the country, with greater concentration in the south and south-western part of the country. The woodlands of Ethiopia are the source of most of the medicinal plants followed by the montane grassland/dry montane forest complex of the plateau. Other important vegetation types for medicinal plants are the evergreen bushland and rocky areas. The uncontrolled use of plants, particularly their roots and the whole plant, can easily lead to their destruction. Some of them may already be endangered. A good example is Taverniera abyssinica whose slender roots that are swathed and small coiled bundles presented for market [Endashaw, 2007]. More generally, environmental degradation, agricultural expansion, deforestation, fire, overgrazing and urbanization appear also to be major threats to the medicinal plants of Ethiopia.

1.4

Colorants and dyes

No data available.

1.5

Utensils, handicrafts and construction materials

No data available.

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PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS Scientific name Hagenia abyssinica Embelia schimperi Ximenia americana Croton macrostachys Euphorbia ampliphylla Tamarindus indica Corindrium sativum Lupinus albus Ricinus communis, Rumex abyssinicus Rumex nervosus Adathoda schimperiana Asparagus africana Bersama abyssinica Kalenchoe petitiana Olea africana Doviyalis abssinica

Unit of measure kg cupful cupful soup spoon tablet kg kg soup spoon kg soup spoon soup spoon soup spoon tea spoon soup spoon soup spoon soup spoon soup spoon

4 Price (Br) 30 5 10 15 50 30 10 15 15 5 30 50 25 50 10 80 5

Table 1: Most common medicinal plants sold by vendors on Ethiopian markets [Dessisa, 1997]

1.6

Ornamental plants

No data available.

1.7

Exudates

Over 60 gums and resins bearing species exist around the country. However, production of exudates is widely dominated by Olibanum resins from Boswellia papyrifera, gum Arabic from Acacia Senegal and Acacia seyal and Myrrh from Commiphora myrrh. It have been estimated that oleo-gum resin bearing woodlands cover about 2.9 million hectares with over 300,000 metric tons of natural gum production potential [Tadesse et al., 2007]. While the national average annual output of exudates during the period 1978-1991 exceeds 1 500 t, much higher figures are registered for the seasons 1983/84 and 1984/85, i.e. 3 500 t and 4 200 t respectively. Later, during the period 1994-1998, average annual exports were apparently around 1193 tons for a mean annual value of ETB 13.03 million and for the period of 1999-2003, around 2161.6 tons for a value of ETB 26.1 million [FAO, 2005]. Data from 2005 showed exports of 2,212.9 tons for a value of ETB 35.6 million [FAO, 2010] but according to UN-COMTRADE database, average exports during the last years (from 2006 to 2009) are around 3951 tons per year for a mean value of $US 7.78 million. In 2009, the total value of gums and resins exports

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PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS

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Species

Purchase price Sales price (Birr/ kg) (Birr/ kg) Aloe spp, 41 306,00 41 056,00 Carisa spinarum 0,67 15,67 Croton macrostachyus 40 943,00 262,64 Cucumis prophetarum,/ C ficifolius 23 012,00 41 125,00 Echinops kebericho 31 229,00 51,02 Embelia schmperi 35 217,00 56,61 Glinus lotoides 31 990,00 37,81 Hagenia abyssininca 21 367,00 47,78 Myrsine africana 26 268,00 35,62 Olea europeae ssp, Cuspidate 19 480,00 40 923,00 Rumex absynnica 41 002,00 93,86 Securidaca longepedanculata 14 550,00 218,33 Senna occidentalis/ S, italica 41 041,00 52,90 Silene macrosalen 41 365,00 49,22 Taverniera abssynica 15 797,00 76,02 Withania somnifera 46 874,00 50,55 Ximenia americana 12 479,00 582,08 Ocimum lamifolium 41 214,00 90,29 Hydnora johannis 14,84 299,17 Jasminium abssynicum 21,33 594,39 Average 41 036,00 106,75 Table 2: Unit purchase and sales price of the most common medicinal plants [Endashaw, 2007]

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PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS

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was at least $US 10.54 million. The mains importers of Ethiopian’s gums are China, United Arab Emirates and Germany. More details on respective production of gum Arabic and other Natural Gums are available in Table 3. Exudates are obtained from a considerable number of Ethiopian shrubs and trees, partly by active tapping and partly by simple collection of gum that occasionally "oozes" from some tree species without any need for human interference. The following products and species appear to play a significant role: olibanum, gum arabic and myrrh. In many parts of rural Ethiopia, exudates are important sources of income and employment for the local communities (tapping, collection, transportation, processing and marketing), raw materials for economic and sociocultural activities, traditional medicines, foreign currency earnings for the country, and provide various ecological services [Eshete et al., 2005] . For example, a survey carried out in the SouthEast Ethiopia found that oleo-gum-resins harvesting and trading generated an average annual cash income per household of US$ 80.00. This income contributes to 32.6% of annual household subsistence [Lemenih et al., 2003].

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Total 1994-1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total 1999-2003 2005

Quantity (kg) 26 798 310 30 2 966 63 764 15 1 304 8 301 874 672 380 875 2 100 647 54 534

Value (Birr) 4 443 133 1 661 730 37 814 297 541 6 780 544 147 704 9 964 191 10 738 644 5 380 585 26 231 124 6 696 000

TOTAL Quantity (kg) 58 523 933 035 85 312 2 136 252 1 456 378 5 964 015 1 594 376 2 078 572 2 038 747 2 376 650 2 719 640 10 807 985 2 212 928

Source Value (Birr) 8 779 619 8 294 231 12 356 389 20 999 633 14 701 989 65 131 861 18 415 786 24 222 682 23 909 507 28 399 821 35 618 337 130 566 133 26 655 000

EEPA EEPA EEPA EEPA EEPA EEPA EEPA EEPA EEPA EEPA EEPA EEPA EEPA

in in in in in in in in in in in in in

PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS

Year

Other Natural Gums Quantity (kg) Value (Birr) 31 725 4 336 486 623 035 6 632 501 85 312 12 356 389 2 106 252 20 621 493 1 426 718 14 404 448 5 326 375 58 351 317 1 579 376 18 268 082 2 078 572 24 222 682 1 208 647 13 945 315 1 501 978 17 661 176 2 338 765 30 237 751 8 707 338 104 335 006 1 667 588 19 959 000

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Gum Arabic

FAO FAO FAO FAO FAO FAO FAO FAO FAO FAO FAO FAO FAO

FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA

Table 3: Exports data of gum Arabic and other natural gums from Ethiopia from 1994 to 2005 [FAO, 2005]

2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2010

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PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS

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Olibanum resins (also called olibanum Tigray type or frankincense) are mainly obtained from Boswellia papyrifera. This plant is found in large amounts in the Tigray, Gondar, Wollega and Gojjam provinces and sparsely spread in Wello and Shewa. Other species yielding similar resins are Boswellia ogadensis, (Hararghe, Bale, Sidamo, Gamu Gofa) and Boswellia rivae (Sidamo, Gamo Gofa), Boswellia sacra and Boswellia freeriana. In northern Ethiopia, some of these species have been planted for rehabilitation of degraded sites. Olibanum is used as fragrance as well as for flavouring purposes. Ethiopia is (together with Sudan) the world’s largest producer of olibanum. According to a 1981 estimate, the potential production in Ethiopia is believed to reach 23 000 t. About 1 500 to 3000 tons per year of olibanum are sold through the official trading channels with nearly 50 percent of the production absorbed by export markets. Exploitation of olibanum is one of the top employment generating activities in the remotest parts of Ethiopia. At the national level, the number of seasonal workers engaged in tapping and grading is estimated to range between 20 000 and 30 000 per year. In addition, it is a very important source of income for most rural people. Gum arabic is obtained from natural stands and plantations of Acacia senegal, which occur in significant amounts in the provinces of Gojjam and Gondar along the Sudan border. A gum of a lower quality, also sold under the name of gum arabic, is obtained from natural stands of Acacia seyal, a species widely found in the Rift valley depression, especially on sites subject to annual waterlogging. A gum of relatively low quality is also obtained from Acacia drepanolobium, a low shrub of the southern-most part of the country, as well as from A. polyacantha. Nour [Nour, 1995] estimated that production of Gum Arabic from Acacia Senegal was between three to five time more important than Gum Arabic production from Acacia seyal. Since 2001, the mean annual exportations of Gum Arabic is around 642.5 tons in Ethiopia. Gums are harvested through tapping in northern Ethiopia, whereas in the south-western part of the country only natural gums are collected by the nomads. Trade is controlled by the Natural Gums Processing and Marketing Enterprise, which regulates prices and trade in gum arabic in Ethiopia [Nour, 1995]. Myrrh, the third valuable exudate, may be considered the one with the highest value. Indeed, myrrh can be sold around 3.2 $US/kg while the other gums range between 0.6-1.5 $US/kg [Vivero, 2001].This resin is obtained from a small shrub, Commiphora myrrh, that is principally found in Ogaden, Bale and Sidamo.

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ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

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Animals and animal products

2.1

Living animals

No data available.

2.2

Honey and bee-wax

Beekeeping is an ancient tradition in Ethiopia. The density of hives is estimated to be the highest in Africa. An estimated 4-10 million traditional hives and more than 10 000 modern box hives are believed to exist in the country. The main products of the beekeeping industry are honey and wax. Honey is almost exclusively used for local consumption, while a considerable proportion of wax is exported. The annual turnover of the apiculture industry is estimated to vary between US$ 26 million and US$ 64 million. Honey and beeswax also play a considerable role in the cultural and religious life of the Ethiopians. Total estimated honey production in Ethiopia, as indicated by the International Trade Center (ITC) in 1986, ranged from 19 400 tons per year to 21 000 tons per year in the 1976-1983 period. This represented 23.28% of total honey production in Africa and 2.03% of total world production in 1976. This figure increased to 23.58% and 2.13%, respectively, of total African and total world honey production in 1983. There has been a further increase in honey production over the period 1984-1994, i.e. from 21 480 t in 1984 to 23 700 t in 1994 ). In 1996, 3 862 t of honey, worth US$12 million, were exported from Ethiopia . The latest data from FAO quoted by Abebe (2009)2 argue that Ethiopia produced 39,000 tons of honey and 4.300 tons of beeswax in 2005. At the world level, Ethiopia ranges tenth in honey production. Another source argue that annual production of wax is estimated at 3 200 t. This estimate does not include beeswax produced in remote areas where it is usually wasted. Thus, after China, Mexico and Turkey, Ethiopia is the fourth largest wax producing country and one of the five biggest wax exporters to the world market. On average 270 t/a were exported during the period 1984-1994, which in turn generated an income of over Br 2 million per annum to the national economy.

2

Missing sources

2

1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL 1984-1994 Annual average 1984-1994 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Honey Quantity (tons) Value (ETB) 18,40 109 161,00 5,90 44 422,00 0,31 1 885,00 0,56 4 382,00 3,80 45 845,00 0,83 6 289,00 1,20 7 365,00 NA NA 0,22 1 810,00 0,86 14 759,00 1,44 24 759,00 33,51 260 677,00 3,05 26 068,00 1 781,10 78 188,00 100,80 29 245,00 761,20 221 363,00 129,00 30 922,00 333,90 93 269,00 340,30 79 087,00

Beeswax Quantity (tons) Value (ETB) 756,00 5 260 000,00 229,00 1 632 000,00 134,00 939 000,00 210,00 1 416 000,00 373,00 2 483 000,00 325,00 1 483 000,00 215,00 1 458 000,00 102,00 689 000,00 130,00 1 328 540,00 229,44 4 049 884,00 NA NA 2 073,44 20 738 424,00 270,34 2 073 842,00

ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

Year

402,00

Table 4: Exports of honey and beeswax from Ethiopia [FAOSTAT] 10

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ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

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Although annual production of both honey and wax is large compared to other African countries, the system of production commonly utilized in the country is traditional. Productivity of the honeybees is very low and on average a yield of only 5-6 kg of honey per hive per year can be obtained. However, in areas where improved technology has been introduced an average of 15-20 kg/hive/year has been recorded. The main resource base for beekeeping - forests and woodlands - has become seriously degraded in the course of time. Eucalyptus plantations have been established in some localities and constitute a new and complementary honey resource. In many places the beekeepers themselves have endeavored to redress the situation by planting good honey plants near their hive colonies, such as Vernonia amygdalina and Salvia spp.

2.3

Bush meat

No data available.

REFERENCES

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References A. Bekele-Tesemma, A. Birnie, and B. Tengnas. Useful trees and shrubs for ethiopia. Technical Report 5, Regional Soil Conservation Unit /SIDA., Nairobi, 1993. D. Dessisa. conomic value of medicinal plants in ethiopia - a case study. In Papers prepared for the National workshop on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in Ethiopia, 26 April 26-1 May 1998, 1997. B. Endashaw. Study on actual situation of medicinal plants in ethiopia. Technical report, Japan Association for International Collaboration of Agriculture and Forestry., 2007. A. Eshete, D. Teketay, and H. Hulten. The socio-economic importance and status of population of boswellia papyrifera in northern ethiopia: The case of north gonder zone. In Forests, Trees and Livelihood., volume 15, pages 55–74, 2005. J. Falconer. "hungry season" food from the forest. In Unasylva, number 41, pages 14–19. FAO, 1990. FAO. Country profile ethiopia., 1990. FAO. Forest Ressources Assessment. FAO, 2005. FAO. Forest Ressources Assessment. FAO, 2010. URL http://www.fao. org/forestry/fra/fra2010/en/. FAOSTAT. URL http://faostat3.fao.org/home/. M. Lemenih, T. Abebe, and M Olsson. Gum and resin resources from some acacia, boswellia and commiphora species and their economic contributions in liban, southeast ethiopia. In Journal of Arid Environments, volume 55, 2003. URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S0140196303000533. A.O.H. Nour. Quality control of gum arabic. Technical report, Mission report. Karthoum, 1995. W. Tadesse, G. Desalegn, and R. Alia. Natural gum and resin bearing species of ethiopia and their potential applications. investigación agraria: Sistemas y recursos forestale., 2007. 16 : 211-221. J.L.P. Vivero. The role of forest resources in nonfarm activities and their importance for rural livelihood diversification in ethiopia: «imperative problems associated with forestry in ethiopia». In Paper presented at the

REFERENCES

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XIth Annual Conference of the Biological Society of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa University, February 1-3, 2001., 2001.

Global Report on Non Wood Forest Products COUNTRY

CLASS SPECIES

YEAR

PRODUCTION unit

VALUE unit

EXPORT uni t

VALUE unit

IMPORT unit

VALUE uni DETAIL t

COMMENT

Ethiopia 7

Gum Arabic

Gums

1994

267 980 kg

4 443 133,00 Birr

-

1995

310 000 kg

1 661 730,00 Birr

-

1997

30 000 kg

378 140,00 Birr

-

1998

29 660 kg

297 541,00 Birr

-

1999

15 000 kg

130 400,00 Birr

-

2000

130 400 kg

2001

830 100 kg

9 964 191,00 Birr

-

2002

874 672 kg

10 738 644,00 Birr

-

2003

380 875 kg

5 380 585,00 Birr

-

2005

545 340 kg

6 696 000,00 Birr

-

2006

3 166 620 kg

484 266,00 $US

-

2007

956 147 kg

1 212 022,00 $US

-

2008

614 211 kg

1 291 726,00 $US

-

2009

622 118 kg

1 315 330,00 $US

-

1994

317 250 kg

4 336 486,00 Birr

-

Other gums

1995

623 035 kg

6 632 501,00 Birr

-

Other gums

1996

853 120 kg

12 356 389,00 Birr

-

Other gums

1997

2 106 252 kg

20 621 493,00 Birr

-

Other gums

1998

1 426 718 kg

14 404 448,00 Birr

-

Other gums

1999

1 579 376 kg

18 268 082,00 Birr

-

Other gums

2000

2 078 572 kg

24 222 682,00 Birr

-

Other gums

2001

1 208 647 kg

13 945 315,00 Birr

-

Other gums

2002

1 501 978 kg

17 661 176,00 Birr

-

Other gums

2003

2 338 765 kg

30 237 765,00 Birr

-

Other gums

2005

1 667 588 kg

19 959 000,00 Birr

-

Other gums

2006

3 875 304 kg

-

Other gums

-

5 664 556,00 $US

NWFP Classes : 1 Food 2 Fodder 3 Raw material for medicine and aromatic products 4 Colorants and dyes 5 Raw material for utensils, handicrafts and construction 6 Ornamental plants 7 Exudates 8 Other plant products 10 Living animals 11 Hides, skins and trophies 12 Wild honey and bee-wax 13 Bush meat 14 Raw material for medicine 15 Raw material for colorants 16 Other edible animal products 17 Other non-edible animal products 20 Mushrooms

vendredi 22 juin 2012 Page 1 sur 2

COUNTRY

CLASS SPECIES 7

12

Gums

Honey

Wax

YEAR

PRODUCTION unit

VALUE unit

2007

EXPORT uni t 3 576 724 kg

VALUE unit

IMPORT unit

VALUE uni DETAIL t -

5 359 570,00 $US

2008

2 860 585 kg

6 555 834,00 $US

-

Other gums

2009

2 983 944 kg

9 223 036,00 $US

-

Other gums

1984

18 400 kg

109 161,00 Birr

-

1985

5 900 kg

44 422,00 Birr

-

1986

306 kg

1 885,00 Birr

-

1987

563 kg

4 382,00 Birr

-

1988

3 800 kg

4 382,00 Birr

-

1989

825 kg

6 289,00 Birr

-

1990

1 200 kg

7 365,00 Birr

-

1992

220 kg

1 810,00 Birr

-

1993

859 kg

14 759,00 Birr

-

1994

1 440 kg

24 759,00 Birr

-

1998

1 781 kg

78 188,00 Birr

-

1999

100 kg

29 245,00 Birr

-

2000

761 kg

221 363,00 Birr

-

2001

129 kg

30 922,00 Birr

-

2002

334 kg

93 269,00 Birr

-

2003

340 kg

79 087,00 Birr

-

1984

756 t

5 260 000,00 Birr

-

1985

229 t

1 632 000,00 Birr

-

1986

134 t

939 000,00 Birr

-

1987

210 t

1 416 000,00 Birr

-

1988

373 t

2 483 000,00 Birr

-

1989

325 t

1 483 000,00 Birr

-

1990

215 t

1 458 000,00 Birr

-

1991

102 t

689 000,00 Birr

-

1992

130 t

1 328 540,00 Birr

-

1993

229 t

4 049 884,00 Birr

-

NWFP Classes : 1 Food 2 Fodder 3 Raw material for medicine and aromatic products 4 Colorants and dyes 5 Raw material for utensils, handicrafts and construction 6 Ornamental plants 7 Exudates 8 Other plant products 10 Living animals 11 Hides, skins and trophies 12 Wild honey and bee-wax 13 Bush meat 14 Raw material for medicine 15 Raw material for colorants 16 Other edible animal products 17 Other non-edible animal products 20 Mushrooms

COMMENT Other gums

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