Surrogacy Map United States

Closure of surrogacy for gay couples/ singles, India. 7 January 2015 ... Thai report on sex selection find number of clinics in breach of Thai. Medical Council ...
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Le colloque a couvert la situation de la GPA dans 20 pays différents

Allemagne Bulgarie France Royaume‐Uni Ukraine

Canada Etats‐Unis Israël

Mexique Ghana

Brésil Uruguay Argentine

Népal Inde

Laos Thaïlande Cambodge Malaisie

Australie

Source: Merchant  Jennifer, “The Legal and  Political Panorama of  Surrogacy in the United  States”, 17 nov. 2016

Surrogacy Map United States (With the permission of Creative Family Connections). http://www.creativefamilyconnections.com/us‐surrogacy‐law‐map

Source: Whittaker Andrea, “New Destinations for International Surrogacy in South-East Asia”, 17 nov. 2016

Date

Event

October 2012

Closure of surrogacy for gay couples/ singles, India

7 January 2015

Ban against Australian couples receiving surrogacy visas, India

January 2014 22 July 2014

50 Israeli babies stranded in Thailand Thai report on sex selection find number of clinics in breach of Thai Medical Council guidelines- Investigation launched into 12 ‘targeted’ clinics Baby Gammy case breaks in press Japanese ‘baby factory’ case breaks- serial surrogacy 15 babies Cambodian authorities advised the Australian Government that commercial surrogacy is illegal in Cambodia

August 2014 August 2014 November 2014

25 April 2015

Earthquake in Nepal, controversy over evacuation of Israeli babies

1 May 2015

Closure of surrogacy for foreign nationals Thailand effective 30 July 2015 Closure of surrogacy for Foreign Nationals, Nepal Indian Govt announces ban surrogacy for Foreign Nationals, and bans import of embryos for assisted reproduction Closure of legal surrogacy in State of Tabasco, Mexico

25 August 2015 4 November 2015 15 December 2015

8

Results: Do surrogates stay in  contact with the family? Across all 102 surrogacy arrangements • Surrogates stayed in contact with 77% of surrogacy children,  85% of mothers and 76% of fathers Frequency of contact for those in contact

Child (n = 79) n % 1 1 At least once a week 7 9 1xweek – 1x month 37 1xmonth – 1x3 months 29 42 53 1 or 2 a year

Mother (n = 62) n % 10 16 20 32 19 31 13 21

Father (n = 65) n % 3 5 8 12 24 37 30 46

Source: Malmanche Hélène, “L’enfantement : une « description épaisse » de la GPA”, 18 nov. 2016

Introduction TERMINOLOGIE / TERMINOLOGY

o

Mère porteuse/surrogate mother

o

Gestatrice/ surrogate

o

Incubateur/ incubator

o

Marraine/ godmother

o

Pondeuse/ layer

o

Nourrice/ nanny …

Source: Lance Delphine, “Penser la maternité à travers l’expérience des femmes porteuses en Ukraine et aux Etats-Unis”, 17 nov. 2016

Results: What do we call each  other? ‘brother/sister’ ‘halfbrother/halfsister’

‘surrosister’ ‘surrogate brother’

‘tummy sister’ ‘by name’

‘sort of cousin’

Source: Jadva Vasanti, “Surrogacy in the UK: The Experience of Surrogates and Their Families”, 18 nov. 2016

« La gestation pour autrui : resituer la France dans le monde.  Représentations, encadrements et pratiques ». Paris, 17‐18 novembre 2016.

http://colloque‐gpa‐paris‐2016.site.ined.fr